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science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing info to draw conclusions or answer questions. (sports stats, education stats, business, medicine, politics)
statistics

info collected from individual
data

entire group of individuals studied
population

person/object being studied
individual

subset of population selected to be studied
sample

organizing/summarizing data by tables/graphs
descriptive stats

use methods from sample, extend to population, measure reliability and answer questions
inferential stats

numerical summary of population
parameter

summary value based on a sample of individuals
statistic

characteristic of individuals of interest
variables

categorical, label, attribute, characteristic (ex: what's student major? gender? occupation? eye color? age categories? race?)
qualitative data

numerical, arithmetic operations used (ex: age? # of textbooks, # of credits, length of time for activity, batting avg, temp, weight, length)
quantitative data

based on a count (ex: # of people, # of credits, # of shoes)
discrete data

measurement not countable (ex: weight, miles driven, Qual=SS#, zip code, phone number)
continuous data

name only, no natural order (qual) (ex: major, political affiliation, gender, race, color)
nominal level of measurement

have order (qual) (ex: age categories, education level)
ordinal level of measurement

difference between 2 values is meaningful (ex: no absolute zero, temp, clock time, calendar years)
interval level of measurement

ratios of values have meaning, absolute zero (ex: length of time 60 sec>15 sec=1/4, # of textbooks, # of credits, physical length)
ratio level of measurement

amount of medicine, level of medicine in capsule
explanatory variable

amount of time person takes to have relief
response variable

no influence in explanatory or response variable
observational study

intentional change in explanatory or response variable
experiment

two or more explanatory variables are not seperated
confounding

explanatory variable not considered in study
lurking variable

look back in time, at past records
retrospective

data collected over time
prospective

