Paramedic Test #8 - Chapter 21 - Genitourinary and Renal Diseases

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cjl410
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Paramedic Test #8 - Chapter 21 - Genitourinary and Renal Diseases
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2013-01-19 20:32:48
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Paramedic Test Chapter 21 Genitourinary Renal Diseases
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Paramedic Test #8 - Chapter 21 - Genitourinary and Renal Diseases
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  1. What is vasa recta?
    Series of capillaries around the loop of Henle. 
  2. What is renin?
    A hormone produced in the juxtaglomerular apparatus in response to blood pressure changes in the filtration content. 
  3. What is the distal convoluted tubule?
    DCT - connections the kidney's collecting tubules.  
  4. What is ADH -
    One of two main hormones responsible for adjustments to the final composition of urine. ADH causes ducts in the kidney to become more permeable to water.  Produced by the hypothalamus.  
  5. What is aldosterone?
    Produced in the adrenal glands, increases the rate of sodium and chloride ions in the blood and water follows. 
  6. Abdominal mapping in nine sections -
    Right hypochondriac  Epigastrict  Left hypochondrial

    Right lumbar  Umbilical  Left lumbar

    Right iliac  Hypogastric  Left Illiac
  7. What are kidney stones?
    Salts or uric acid crystallizes in the urine.  
  8. What is ARF?
    Acute renal failure.  Sudden decrease in the rate of filtration through the glomeruli, causing toxins to accumulate in the blood.  General edema, acid buildup, high levels of nitrogenous and metabolic waste in the blood.  
  9. What is oliguria?
    Urine output of less than 500mL/day.
  10. What is anuria?
    Complete cessation of urine production.
  11. Types of ARF?
    Prerenal ARF - hypoperfusion of the kidneys. Caused by hypovolemia, trauma, shock, sepsis, heart failure.  Cured by treating underlying condition. 
  12. What is intrarenal ARF? 
    Damage to one of three areas of the kidneys - glomeruli capillaries and small blood vessels, cells of the kidney tubules, or renal parenchyma.  Can be caused by type 1 diabetes or toxins.   
  13. What is postrenal ARF?
    Obstruction of urine flow from the kidneys.  Blockage by an enlarged prostate, renal calculi, or strictures.  
  14. What is uremia?
    Increased concentration of urea and other waste products in the blood. 
  15. What is azotemia?
    Increased level of nitrogenous wastes in the blood. 
  16. What is epididymitis?
    Infection that causes inflammation of the epididymis along the posterior border of the testes.  
  17. What is orchitis?
    One or both of the testes become infected. 
  18. What is Fournier gangrene?
    Infection and necrosis of muscle and tissue of the scrotum from bacteria.  
  19. What is priaprism?
    Painful, persistent erection.  
  20. What is phimosis?
    Inability to retract the distal foreskin over the penis. 
  21. What is paraphimosis?
    Foreskin can't retract. 
  22. What is benign prostate hypertrophy?
    BPH is non-malignant (non-cancerous) enlargement of the prostate. 
  23. What is testicular torsion?
    Twisting of the testicle on the spermatic cord. Reduced blood flow to the testes.  
  24. What are nephrons?
    Structural and functional units of the kidneys that form urine.  Composed of:

    • Glomerulus
    • Glomerular (Bowman's capsule)
    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal convoluted tubule

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