AN SC 311 ch.10 notes 2nd half

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Author:
ljnickel
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193891
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AN SC 311 ch.10 notes 2nd half
Updated:
2013-01-19 23:18:21
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AN SC 311 10 notes 2nd half
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Functional Anatomy of liver plus biliary system
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  1. Why is acute liver failure usually caused? What are the symptoms? 
    • reactions to drugs - usually overdose
    • environment toxins
    • will show jaundice because of retained bilirubin. It will then progress to coma because of increased plasma ammonia and blood coagulation. 
  2. What is fibrosis with respect to the liver? 
    deposition of excess collagen in the liver. Reduces hepatic mass, compressing sinusoids and causing an increase in resistance to blood flow. 
  3. What is Alcoholic Cirrhosis. What does it do? 
    • effects hepatic function - fibrotic hardening of liver alters structure and function
    • ethanol metabolized - produces acetyldehyde which impairs hepatocyte function.
    • accumulation of reaction of fat in the liver
    • hepatic stellate cells are activated to produce collagen because of cytokines produced by kupffer cells in response to toxins and oxidative stress in the gut
  4. What happens with viral hepatitis? 
    triggers adverse immune function
  5. What happens in portal hypertension?
    • resistance to blood flow across the liver is increased
    • inflammatory responses trigger hepatic stellate cells to increase collagen production with leads to reducing permeability across sinusoidal endothelium and space of disse
  6. What is the most obvious clinical sign of portal hypertension? 
    ascites 
  7. What happens in ascites? 
    simply: buildup of fluids in the peritoneal cavity
  8. What is the main method to asses lever injury/function
    blood tests
  9. What do blood tests tell you about liver function and injury?
    • accumulation of molecules excreted via biliary system show liver failure
    • measurement of bilirubin 
    • levels of albumin and blood clotting factors
    • elevated glucose plus ammonia levels
  10. How can hepatocyte death be assessed? 
    by looking for alanine aminotransferrase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferrase as well as alkaline phosphate and GGT. 
  11. What does measuring bilirubin show you? 
    injury in hepatocytes, or obstruction within biliary system

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