US And Modern World History Final

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Author:
kerapingree
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193898
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US And Modern World History Final
Updated:
2013-01-20 00:29:03
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History WWII Recent Times Civil Rights Cold War Imperialism Progressive Era WWI Great Depression
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Flashcards to study for history final: 1/25
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  1. What did Muller v. Oregon do?
    The Supreme Court upheld a law limiting women laundry workers to a ten-hour day.
  2. What was the Pan American Conference?
    Secretary of State James G. Blaine (from Maine) called this conference to get nations of the Western Hemisphere to establish stronger trade ties. This conference failed.
  3. When did 1/8 of the US population own 7/8 of the nation's wealth?
    Before the Progressive Era
  4. What was The Wisconsin Idea?
    Allowed direct primaries
  5. What was the Roosevelt Corollary?
    An addition to the original document warning Europe that the US would police Latin America.
  6. What were the causes for the Spanish-American War?
    • 1. U.S. soldiers accused the Spanish of blowing up the U.S.S. Maine.
    • 2. Americans had sympathy for Cubans (yellow journalism about concentration camps).
    • 3. US companies had an interest in sugar from Cuba.
  7. What was stated in the Treaty of Paris?
    An agreement between the US and Spain to end the Spanish-American War: The US obtained Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines ($20m).
  8. What was the Bull Moose Party?
    Formed by Theodore Roosevelt in 1912, this party focused on Progressive reforms.
  9. What is municipal socialism?
    Government is involved in providing utilities - Gas, Coal, Oil.
  10. What were the Neutrality Acts?
    A series of acts passed in the 1930s by the United States Congress to stay out of the second World War.
  11. What was the "Cash & Carry" policy?
    A policy of warring nations purchasing arms and other goods from the US.
  12. What was the "hemispheric defense zone"?
    The US aided England by protecting her colonies in the Americas - We watched & defended them.
  13. What was the Holocaust?
    A genocide during WWII that took the lives of 11 million Europeans. Jews were put in concentration & extermination camps and killed.
  14. What laws limited Jews in Germany?
    "Nuremberg Laws" - Implemented a curfew and restricted Jewish faith.
  15. What's the term which refers to the German annexation of Austria?
    Anschluss
  16. What was "Mein Kampf," who was responsible for it, and what was it about?
    Adolf Hitler's book which explained his plan of unifying Germany under the rule of a superior race.
  17. What is radar?
    A technological device which detects the presence of flying objects.
  18. What was the Policy of Appeasement?
    Appeasement is satisfying someone to avoid conflict. England & France used this policy with Germany concerning Czechoslovakia.
  19. What was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
    An agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union stating that they won't fight each other, and if they win Poland, they will split it. This agreement was a secret until the war was over.
  20. What is fascism?
    Fascism is the term for the type of government where the nation comes before the individual.
  21. What was the New Deal?
    Implemented by FDR, the New Deal expanded the federal government's authority over the economy and made it more "hands-on." It included 15 major acts/programs to address the economy.
  22. What is a "Welfare State?"
    A Welfare State is when people rely on the government to live. FDR's New Deal programs raised concern to some of the public who worried our nation might find itself in a Welfare State.
  23. What were the "Fireside Chats?"
    The Fireside Chats were FDR's weekly speeches on the radio.
  24. What was "rationing?"
    "To decrease the use of something": Americans rationed meat to send to soldiers, sugar to make alcohol & send to soldiers, and changed the speed limit to 35 to use less gas & rubber.
  25. What did Korematsu v. US entail?
    Korematsu v. US addressed the role of the US government with national security concerning individuals such as Japanese Americans, after they were put in internment camps.
  26. Who was Benito Mussolini?
    He was the leader (dictator) of Italy, AKA "El Duche" : 1922
  27. What are "Periphery Regions?"
    Churchill wanted to attack Germany's colonies, or Germany's "periphery." Periphery regions are regions that the country isn't directly focused on at the time, or the sides.
  28. Where does Italy invade in Africa?
    Somalia
  29. How does the "business cycle" work?
    The fluctuating economy over a period of time. I.e., if there was a depression, people would stop spending, and if the economy was good, people would spend a lot.
  30. What were the "100 days" referring to?
    The special session of Congress to pass legislation on the New Deal.
  31. What was the "Bank Holiday?"
    FDR dealt with bank scares by declaring a "bank holiday," so that banks had time to get themselves stable and reopen the following week.
  32. What was the Bataan Death March?
    A prisoner march in the Philippines imposed by the Japanese, on Americans and Filipinos. Forced a march of 65 miles to prison camps, and about 10,000 prisoners died.
  33. Why did the US enter WWII?
    The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor which killed 2,402 people and wounded 1,282.
  34. What was the oil embargo?
    Japan invaded China and the US responded with an oil embargo - they refused to trade oil with Japan.
  35. Where did the Allies begin their invasion of Italy?
    Sicily
  36. What/who were Kamikaze pilots?
    Japanese suicidal pilots were called Kamikaze pilots. They would fly their planes into things, killing themselves and others.
  37. What is "policing?"
    Sending troops to a country and "watching" them for conflict is called "policing." During WWII, the US policed Latin America.
  38. What was the St. Louis Incident?
    930 Jewish Germans were denied entry to Cuba and US (Florida), and were forced to face the Holocaust.
  39. What was the Atlantic Charter?
    A policy stating the US would only trade with free and democratic nations.
  40. What were the Nuremberg Trials?
    Nuremberg Trials brought Nazi leaders to justice for crimes against humanity after the war. Trials brought justice & peace of mind to Holocaust survivors and their families. 3 acquitted, 7 sent to prison, 12 put to death.
  41. What was the name of the Atomic Bomb testing?
    The Manhattan Project.
  42. What was the Tehran Conference?
    A conference between the US, England and Soviet Union - decided to divide Germany to create a 2-front war, and attack Japan after.
  43. What did the paper clip symbolize?
    The paper clip was created in Norway, and symbolized solidarity against the Nazis.
  44. What is "island hopping?"
    A tactic used by the US when invading Japan - Troops would go from island to island, securing them until they got to the mainland.
  45. Tell me about Hiroshima:
    • - August 6, 1945
    • - 1st place bombed in Japan (2nd, Nagasaki)
    • - Plane was called "Anola Gay," bomb, "Little Boy"
  46. What is "Kristallnacht?"
    Meaning "Crystal Night" or "Night of Broken Glass" : On November 9–10, 1938, the Nazis had state-sanctioned riots against the Jewish community of Germany, killing people and destroying their property.
  47. What was the invasion of Normandy?
    AKA "Operation Overlord" or "D-day" - the US invaded Normandy, France; on June 6, 1944.
  48. What was the Supreme Court Reform Plan?
    FDR had concern about the New Deal passing, so he proposed changing the Supreme Court from 9 to 13 judges. This way, he could appoint 4 who favored it. This idea failed.
  49. What is "yellow journalism?"
    Journalism that exaggerates an issue to get people to change their opinion or lean further to their side.
  50. What is "nationalism?"
    An extreme pride for one's homeland.
  51. What was the Zimmermann Note/Telegram?
    Germany tried to make an alliance with Mexico to turn against the US, promised to help fight for New Mexico & Arizona
  52. What happened on November 11, 1918?
    There was an armistice - Germany surrendered, and the war ended.
  53. What was the Treaty of Versailles and what did it implement?
    • 1. Germany was considered guilty. They had to lose colonies in Africa and Asia, and to pay $33 billion.
    • 2. The US created the League of Nations (US did not join).
    • 3. France had Alsace & Lorraine returned from Germany (lost during the Franco-Prussian war).
    • 4. Italy received small territories from AH empire.
    • 5. Ottoman Empire was broken into Turkey & Armenia.
    • 6. Austria-Hungary was broken into smaller countries.
    • 7. Japan received German colonies in Asia.
  54. What was the Social Security Act?
    One of FDR's New Deal programs (1935) providing pensions, unemployment insurance, and aid to blind, deaf, disabled, and dependent children.
  55. What was the Civilian Conservation Corps/Camps?
    One of FDR's New Deal programs (1933) which sent 250,000 young men to work camps to perform reforestation and conservation tasks. It removed a surplus of workers from cities, provided healthy conditions for boys and money for families.
  56. What was the Platt Amendment?
    Made conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War. Claimed some areas (Guantanamo Bay Naval Base). Made in 1901, signed in 1903.
  57. What was the 15th amendment?
    Allowed African Americans the right to vote.
  58. What was the 16th amendment?
    Congress has the right to implement income taxes.
  59. What was the 17th amendment?
    Decided that each state should have 2 senators elected by the people with 6 years per term.
  60. What was the 18th amendment?
    Banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol.
  61. What was the 19th amendment?
    Granted women the right to vote (suffrage).
  62. What was the 20th amendment?
    Stated that the President and Vice President's terms end on January 20th at noon. This prevented "lame ducks" - Presidents who don't do their job from the September election - January inauguration.
  63. What was the 21st amendment?
    Repealed the 18th amendment: Alcohol is legal again.
  64. What was the 22nd amendment?
    Decided no president could serve more than 2 terms.
  65. What was the 23rd amendment?
    Allowed citizens of Washington, DC to participate in presidential elections.
  66. What was the 24th amendment?
    It outlawed poll taxed for all federal elections.
  67. What was the 25th amendment?
    Decided that if something were to happen to the president, the vice president would take over.
  68. What was the 14th amendment?
    All people born in the United States are citizens.
  69. What is conscription?
    To conscript someone is to draft them, e.g. into the military.
  70. What is impeachment?
    A formal document charging a public official with a crime while they are in office.
  71. What happened during the 1960 Presidential race?
    President John F. Kennedy (MA) won against Richard Nixon (CA). It was a VERY close election, with 49.7 for Kennedy and 49.6 for Nixon.
  72. Who was César Chávez?
    César Chávez was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association.
  73. Who was Rosa Parks?
    An African-American civil rights activist who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white person on December 1, 1955. This began the Montgomery Bus Boycott and sparked the Civil Rights Movement.
  74. What/who were Freedom Riders?
    African-American activists in the 1960s who rode interstate buses for the purpose of challenging segregation.

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