heartworm flashcards

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heartworm flashcards
2013-01-20 00:26:22
heartworm exam

heartworm exam flashcards
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  1. how many stages are there in the heartworm life cycle?
    • L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 
    • 5 stages
  2. exaplain the 8 steps in the heartworm life cycle
    1- Adults mating in the pulmonary arterie in the heart. Produce microfilaria (L1)

    2-microfilaria circulate in the blood stream. Mosquito takes a blood meal and ingests 1-3 L1s.

    3-L1 moults into L3 inside the mosquito.

    4-Mosquito takes another blood meal and L3 enter the bite wound through the saliva into the host.

    5- L3-L4 in 3-4 days 

    6- L4 migrates through muscle layers which takes 50-70 days until it reaches the neck.

    7- L4 moults into L5 and penetrates a blood vessel in the neck migrating to the pulmonary artery.

    8- L5 takes 4.5 months to moult into an adult and reproduce in the pulmonary artery the whole cycle from L1 ingestion to adult takes 6.5 months.
  3. list 7 products that will treat and prevent heartworm?
    • interceptor
    • sentinel
    • milbemax
    • heartgard-30
    • heartgard-30 plus
    • revolution
    • proheart 6
  4. name the active ingrediant and any facts about Interceptor
    • Milbemycin Oxime
    • gets heartworm L1-L4
    • given orally
    • safe for pregnant
    • min age 2 weeks or 1kg of weight
    • 4 x dose for cats
  5. name the Ai and information on Sentinel
    • milbemycin oxime and lufenuron
    • gets heartworm L1-L4
    • orally
    • is a combo of interceptor and program
    • give with meal to slow down absorbtion of lufenuron
    • min age 2 weeks 
    • safe for pregnant
  6. name a.i in milbemax and facts
    • milbemycin oxime and praziquantel
    • gets, heartworm, hook, tape, round
    • min age 6 weeks
    • feline online
  7. name a.i in heartgard 30 and information on it
    • ivermectin
    • heartworm only
    • orally q30 days
    • min 6 weeks
    • canine online
    • safe for pregnant
  8. a.i in heartgard 30 plus and information
    • ivermectin
    • pyrantel
    • gets heartworm, hook and round
    • min age 6 weeks
    • canine only
    • safe for pregnant
  9. revolution a.I
    • selamectin
    • 6 weeks min
    • safe in heartworm positive cats and pregnant animals
    • topically
    • gets heartworm and fleas aswell as nematodes american dog tick sarcoptes and earmites
  10. proheart a.i and information
    • moxidectin
    • heartworm and hookworm
    • blood test required
    • injectable
    • not good for underweight animals
    • feline and canine
    • 6 months min
  11. name two ways of testing for heart worm
    -antigen test(snap test) to test for the proteins shed by the adult heartworms.

    -microfilarial recovery test to test for the microfilaria in the blood stream.
  12. why is there no need to test a animal less than 6 months of age before protecting against heartworm?
    because the heartworm tests are testing for adult heartworms and the adult heartworms will not develope until 6.5 months of age and even at that point may still go undetected.
  13. why is it difficult to dx heartworms in cats?
    because it takes few heartworms to cause symptoms in cats. making it harder to detect the smaller amount of microfilaria and antigens in the blood stream
  14. which other animals can be affected by heartworm?
    • coyotes wolves and other canines
    • ferrets
    • cats
  15. can humans get heartworm?
    yes they cause local skin infections due to the humans stronger immune system
  16. what are the 6 ways of dx heartworm?
    • top 3 / p.e
    • heartworm blood tests (antigen and microfilarial recovery test)
    • blood and urine tests
    • radiographs
    • ECG
    • ultrasound
  17. what are the 7 cls of heartworm?
    • exercise intolerance
    • coughing
    • dyspnea
    • respiratory crackles
    • hemoptysis
    • hypertension
    • syncope