Biology Final

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Biology Final
2013-01-23 18:37:49
Biology Cellular Respiration Genes Genetics Cells

Flashcards for the biology final test.
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  1. Define lactic acid.
    A waste product of anaerobic respiration in animals; causes a burning sensation in muscles.
  2. Define fluorescence.
  3. Define cell.
    A membrane-bound structure which is the biological unit of all organisms.
  4. Define active transport.
    The movement of substances from a lower to higher concentration using energy.
  5. Define carbohydrate chain.
    If associated with a protein, may identify cell to immune system.
  6. Define cholesterol.
    Acts to stabilize the phospholipid bilayer and prevent tails of phospholipids from sticking to each other.
  7. Define diffusion.
    The movement of substances from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
  8. Define endocytosis.
    Type of active transport that moves large molecules INTO (endo) the cell against the concentration gradient.
  9. Define exocytosis.
    Type of active transport that moves large molecules OUT of (exo) the cell against the concentration gradient.
  10. Define facilitated diffusion.
    The movement of larger molecules across a cell membrane through protein channels from high to low concentration.
  11. Define hydrophilic.
    Refers to the head of the phospholipid that is attracted to water.
  12. Define hydrophobic.
    Refers to the head of the phospholipid which avoids water.
  13. Define osmosis.
    The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.
  14. Define passive transport.
    A process that moves molecules from regions of high concentration to low concentration and doesn't require energy.
  15. Define phospholipid.
    The primary molecule that makes up a plasma membrane.
  16. Define plasmolysis.
    Cell shrinkage due to water loss; in plants, cell shows signs of the membrane pulling away from the cell wall. Occurs in hypertonic solutions
  17. Define protein channel.
    The integral protein (passing through the membrane) that allows for the passage of larger molecules.
  18. Define turgor pressure.
    The pressure pushing on a call wall from a full vacuole.
  19. Define mitosis.
    Division of the nucleus that creates genetically identical daughter cells.
  20. Define cytokinesis.
    The final step of cell division in which the cytoplasm and organelles are divided into two new cells.
  21. Define interphase.
    The longest stage of the cell cycle; cell grows, does its job, and copies DNA
  22. Define prophase.
    The stage of mitosis in which nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear and chromatin coils into chromosomes.
  23. Define metaphase.
    The shortest stage of mitosis; spindles attach to centromeres and chromosomes are moved to the middle of the cell.
  24. Define anaphase.
    The stage of mitosis in which chromosomes are split and sister chromatids move apart towards opposite poles of the cell.
  25. Define telophase.
    The stage of mitosis in which the nucleus splits, nuclear membrane and nucleoli reappear, and chromosomes return to chromatin.
  26. Define cell plate.
    A developing cell wall that appears in plant cells during telophase.
  27. Define centromere.
    The region on a chromosome where sister chromatids attach.
  28. Define spindle fiber.
    Microfilaments that move chromosomes around the cell and assist with cleavage during cytokinesis.
  29. Define cleavage furrow.
    Indentation(s) that indicate splitting of cell in animal cells during telophase and cytokinesis.
  30. Define sister chromatids.
    The two identical halves of a chromosome that attach at the centromere.
  31. Define cancer.
    A disease that is the result of uncontrolled cell division.
  32. Define carcinogen.
    A factor which causes cancer; could include chemicals, radiation, viruses or heredity
  33. Define tumor.
    A mass of cancerous cells.
  34. Define benign.
    A tumor that is encapsulated and not likely to spread.
  35. Define malignant.
    A tumor that has potential to spread throughout the body.
  36. Define metastatis.
    The spread of cancer cells throughout the body.
  37. Define mutation.
    A change in DNA sequence, often caused by carcinogens.
  38. Define chromosome.
    Tightly coiled packets of DNA found in the nucleus during cell division.
  39. Define chromatin.
    The uncoiled form of DNA that exists during interphase.
  40. Define stem cell.
    An undifferentiated cell that can become any cell type in the body.
  41. Define differentiation.
    A process of specialization in which a cell becomes a specific cell type within the body.
  42. Define G1.
    Stage of interphase when the cell rapidly grows.
  43. Define G2.
    Stage of interphase in which cell is checked for errors and final preparation for cell division occurs.
  44. Define G0.
    Stage of interphase in which the cell "rests" or stops the division process.
  45. Define apoptosis.
    Programmed cell death that occurs in the cells between fingers and toes and in cells that have been identified as "damaged."
  46. Define centrioles.
    Rod-shaped structures in animal cells that may assist in spindle fiber formation.
  47. Define cell cycle.
    The sequence of growth (interphase) and division (mitosis) in a cell.
  48. List 3 reasons why cells are small.
    • 1. Diffusion - They need efficiency to receive nutrients/excrete waste products.
    • 2. DNA -
    • 3. Surface Area vs. Volume Ratio - Volume grows quicker than the surface area, the cells would explode.
  49. Why is mitosis important?
    Mitosis allows multicellular organisms to repair and replace cells.
  50. List a difference between animal cell mitosis & plant cell mitosis.
    - Animal cell mitosis has a cleavage furrow during telophase, whereas plant cells develop cell plates.
  51. Define heredity.
    The passing on of traits from parents to offspring
  52. Define trait.
    A possible characteristic
  53. Define meiosis.
    Type of cell division that produces haploid gametes.
  54. Define gamete.
    A sex cell containing half the number of chromosomes found in a body cell.
  55. Define diploid.
    Containing a full set of chromosomes, as in all body cells.
  56. Define haploid.
    Containing half of the number of chromosomes found in body cells, as in sex cells.
  57. Define gene.
    A segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein and therefore trait.
  58. Define fertilization.
    Combining of an egg and sperm to form a diploid zygote.
  59. Define zygote.
    The diploid result of fertilization.
  60. Define dominant.
    A form of gene that is expressed or shown, usually written as a capital letter.
  61. Define recessive.
    A form of gene which is masked or hidden, written as a lower-case letter.
  62. Define genotype.
    A 2 letter code of the genes which make up a given trait.
  63. Define phenotype.
    The observable characteristic which corresponds with a given genotype.
  64. Define homozygous.
    When both genes inherited from the parents are the same.
  65. Define heterozygous.
    When both genes inherited from the parents are different.
  66. Define tetrad.
    Paired homologous chromosomes found during Prophase I.
  67. Define homologous.
    Of the same size and containing the same genetic information.
  68. Define crossing over.
    Swapping of genetic information between homologous chromosomes.
  69. Define independent assortment.
    Random arrangement of paternal and maternal chromosomes along the cell equator during metaphase I.
  70. Define alleles.
    An "option" for a gene.
  71. Define gonads.
    Ovaries & testes.
  72. Define cellular respiration.
    The process of releasing energy from food and storing it in molecules of ATP.
  73. Define chemical energy.
    The type of energy stored in the bonds of molecules.
  74. Define ATP.
    Adenosine TriPhosphate; the universal energy currency of cells
  75. Define glucose.
    The ingredient in respiration which provides the source of energy.
  76. Define oxygen.
    The ingredient of respiration required to "burn" the fuel.
  77. Define glycolysis.
    The first step in respiration in which glucose is split.
  78. Define cytoplasm.
    The watery location of the first step of respiration.
  79. Define fermentation.
    The anaerobic form of respiration which results in fewer ATPs being produced.
  80. Define transcription.
    The process of copying the code of DNA onto a single-stranded mRNA molecule; happens in the nucleus
  81. Define translation.
    The process of decoding the sequence of nucleotides on mRNA into a sequence of amino acids; happens in the cytoplasm on a ribosome
  82. Define mRNA.
    "messenger RNA"; single-stranded RNA that carries the code of DNA from the nucleus out to the ribosome
  83. Define amino acids.
    The building blocks of proteins
  84. Define codon.
    A series of three mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid.
  85. Define protein.
    Type of macromolecule so abundant in living things that it makes up most of our non-water weight
  86. Define ribosomes.
    Little, round structures in the cytoplasm that act as the site of protein synthesis.
  87. Name the nitrogen bases:
    • Adenine + Thymine
    • Cytosine + Guanine
  88. From DNA to RNA, which nitrogen base changes to what?
    Thymine from DNA changes to Uracil on RNA.
  89. Define chloroplast.
    A pigment-containing plastid which is the site of photosynthesis. (Only in plant cells)
  90. Define mitochondria.
    The "powerhouse" of the cell, where food molecules are converted to a more usable form. (All cells)
  91. Define cell wall.
    Made of cellulose, provides structural support to plant cells. (Only in plant cells)
  92. Define plasma membrane.
    A flexible boundary which controls what enters and leaves; maintains homeostasis. (All cells)
  93. Define nucleus.
    Controls and manages the function of a cell; where DNA is stored. (All cells)
  94. Define vacuole.
    The storage structure for food, water and wastes. (All cells, smaller in animals)
  95. Define lysosome.
    Little sacs which contain enzymes for breaking molecules apart and recycling cell parts. (More common in animals)
  96. Define monosaccharides.
    The building blocks of carbohydrates.
  97. Macromolecules which store and transmit genetic information, such as DNA and RNA:
    Nucleic acids.
  98. Define lipids.
    Fatty acids which provide long-term energy storage and insulation.
  99. Define photosynthesis.
    Anabolic pathway which converts energy from the Sun to chemical energy for use by cells.
  100. Define autotroph.
    A group of organisms which make their own food, such as plants.
  101. Define heterotroph.
    A group of organisms which eat other organisms for food, such as animals.
  102. Define chemoautotroph.
    A group of organisms which get their energy from inorganic substances, such as hydrogen sulfide.
  103. Which type of dominance "blends" recessive & dominant genes?
    Incomplete dominance
  104. In which type of dominance does the dominant trait completely mask the recessive trait?
    Complete dominance
  105. In which type of dominance do both dominant and recessive genes show up on the organism?
  106. Define karyotype.
    A type of diagnostic tool which compares homologous chromosomes to find chromosomal disorders; almost always definitive.
  107. Define variation.
    An individual that possesses characteristics different from the others of the same kind.
  108. Define Punnett square.
    A Punnett square is a way to figure out the probability of an offspring's having a certain genotype using 2 alleles from each parent.
  109. Define pedigree.
    A pedigree is a diagram showing a family history and their genotype; circles represent females and squares represent males.
  110. Define natural selection.
    Evolution's principal mechanism: Species which have genes that help them survive over time live to reproduce; and therefore the trait becomes common.
  111. Define evolution.
    • Evolution is the change in genetic composition of a species to adapt to its environment over time.
    • There are two major mechanisms that drive evolution: first is natural selection. Individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to reproduce successfully, passing these traits to the next generation. Another mechanism involves random changes in the frequency of traits in a population. This creates variation, or diversity.
  112. Define telomere.
    A telomere is the tip of a chromosome which allows it to replicate multiple times; the telomere helps chromosomes not to stick together.
  113. Define homeostasis.
    When an organism or cell reaches an equilibrium or stability within its internal environment while dealing with external changes.
  114. Define chemosynthesis.
    Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical Energy to produce carbohydrates.
  115. Define resolution.
    Resolving power; the ability to clearly determine two separate points; clarity.
  116. Define chromatid.
    Half of a chromosome; a V instead of an X; as in sister chromatids.
  117. State the Cell Theory:
    • 1.¬†The cell is the structural unit for all living things.
    • 2.¬†Every living thing is made up of one or more cells.
    • 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
  118. Define chlorophyll.
    A green pigment found