MEDTERM Chapter 4 ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY

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MEDTERM Chapter 4 ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY
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2013-01-20 03:12:18
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Medical Terminology
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From the book Medical Terminology: A Word Building Approach
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  1. homeostasis
    state of equilibrium that is maintained within the body’s internal environment
  2. Water
    tasteless, clear, odorless liquid that makes up 65% of a male’s body weight and 55% of a female’s body weight
  3. Atoms
    the smallest chemical unit of matter
  4. Nucleus
    center of atom
  5. Molecules
    • chemical compound of two or more atoms that form a specific chemical compound
    • H20
  6. Cells
    – the basic building blocks for the various structures that together make up the human being
  7. Cell Membrane
    outer covering of the cell, which has the capacity of allowing some substances to pass into and out of the cell while denying passage to other substancess. This selectivity allows cells to receive nutrition and dispose of waste.
  8. Cytoplasm
    the cell substance between the cell membrane and nuclear membrane. It is a jellylike material that is mostly water. The cytoplasm provides storage and work areas for the cells.
  9. Nucleus
    is responsible for the cell’s metabolism, growth, and reproduction
  10. The cell nucleus consists of:
    Chromosomes, Gene, and Genome
  11. Chromosomes
    microscopic bodies that carry the genes that determine hereditary characteristics.  There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human body
  12. Gene
    makes up each segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and is located in a specific site on the chromosome. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human body. Genes determine an individual’s physical traits and control hereditary disorders.
  13. Genome
    a complete set of genes and chromosomes tucked inside each of the body’s trillions of cells.
  14. Stem Cells 
    • cells of the body that are different from other kinds of cells in the body. They have three general properties:
    • a. They are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods.
    • b. They are unspecialized.
    • c. They give rise to specialized cell types
  15. Some primary sources of stem cells are
    Embryos – an unspecialized cell that may turn itself into any type of tissue; derived primarily from frozen in vitro (in glass, as in a test tube) fertilization embryos.

    Adult Tissue – more specialized cells found in many kinds of tissue, such as bone marrow, skin, and the liver.

    Umbilical Cord Blood – rich source of precursors of mature blood cells obtained from cord blood at the time of birth.
  16. Embryos
    an unspecialized cell that may turn itself into any type of tissue; derived primarily from frozen in vitro (in glass, as in a test tube) fertilization embryos
  17. Adult Tissue
    more specialized cells found in many kinds of tissue, such as bone marrow, skin, and the liver.
  18. Umbilical Cord Blood
    rich source of precursors of mature blood cells obtained from cord blood at the time of birth.
  19. Tissues
    grouping of similar cells that perform specialized functions.
  20. There are four basic types of tissue in the body
    • Epithelial Tissue
    • Connective Tissue
    • Muscle Tissue
    • Nerve Tissue
  21. Epithelial Tissue
    this tissue forms the outer layer of skin, covers organs, lines cavities, and form tubes, ducts, and portions of certain glands; responsible for protection, absorption, secretion, and excretion.
  22. Connective Tissue
    is most abundant of tissue and is responsible for supporting organs of the body, providing sheaths for muscles, and connects muscle to bone and bones to joints.
  23. Muscle Tissue-
    consist of three different types of tissue:
    • Voluntary or striated
    • Cardiac
    • Involuntary or smooth
  24. Voluntary or striated
    under control of a person’s will.
  25. Cardiac
    specialized form of striated tissue under the control of the autonomic nervous system
  26. Nerve Tissue
    onsist of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting cells called neuroglia. Nervous tissue has the properties of excitability and conductivity, and functions to control and coordinate the activities of the body
  27. Involuntary or smooth
    under control of the autonomic nervous system.
  28. Organs
    groups of tissues that serve a common purpose or function
  29. Systems
    a group of organs that function together for a common purpose
  30. Superior
    above, in an upward direction, toward the head
  31. Anterior (ventral)
    in front of or before, the front side of the body.
  32. Posterior (dorsal)
    toward the back, back side of the body.
  33. Cephalic
    pertaining to the head
  34. Medial
    nearest the midline or middle
  35. Lateral
    to the side, away from the middle.
  36. Proximal
    – nearest the point of attachment or near the beginning of a structure
  37. Distal
    away from the point of attachment or far from the beginning of a structure
  38. Planes
    • imaginary surfaces that pass through the body and divide it into various sections
    • Midsagittal Plane
    • Transverse or Horizontal Plane
    • Coronal or Frontal Plane
  39. Midsagittal Plane
    • vertically divides the body as it
    • passes through the midline to form a right and left half.
  40. Transverse or Horizontal Plane
    • – any plane that divides
    • the body into superior and inferior portions.
  41. Coronal or Frontal Plane
    • any plane that divides the
    • body at right angles to the midsagittal plane into anterior
    • (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions
  42. Cavities
    a hollow space containing body organs
  43. Ventral Cavity
    • a hollow portion of the human torso
    • extending from the neck to the pelvis that contains the
    • organs of respiration, digestion, reproduction, and
    • elimination
  44. Ventral Cavity Consists of:
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • Abdominal Cavity
    • Pelvic Cavity
  45. Thoracic Cavity
    • chest area containing the
    • heart (pericardial cavity), space around the lungs,
    • (pleural cavity), esophagus, trachea, thymus, major
    • blood and lymph vessels
  46. Abdominal Cavity
    • space below the diaphragm,
    • commonly referred to as the belly, that contains the
    • kidneys, stomach, intestines, and other organs of
    • digestion.
  47. Pelvic Cavity
    • the space formed by the bones of
    • the pelvis and contains the organs of elimination
    • and reproduction.
  48. Dorsal Cavity
    • contains the structures of the nervous
    • system
  49. Dorsal Cavity is subdivided into:
    • Cranial Cavity
    • Spinal Cavity
  50. Cranial Cavity
    space containing the brain.
  51. Spinal Cavity
    • space within the bony spinal
    • column that contains spinal cord and spinal fluid
  52. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    • a combination of the abdominal
    • and pelvic cavity that is divided into nine regions.
  53. Nine Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
    • Right Hypochondriac – upper right region at the level of
    • the ninth rib cartilage.
    • Left Hypochondriac – upper left region at the level of the
    • ninth rib cartilage.
    • Epigastric – region over the stomach.d. Right Lumbar – right middle lateral region.
    • Left Lumbar – left middle lateral region.
    • Umbilical – in the center, between the right and left lumbar
    • region; at the navel.
    • Right Iliac (Inguinal) – right lower lateral region.
    • Left Iliac (Inguinal) – left lower lateral region.
    • Hypogastric – lower middle region below the navel.
  54. Right Hypochondriac
    upper right region at the level of the ninth rib cartilage.
  55. Left Hypochondriac 
    upper left region at the level of the ninth rib cartilage.
  56. Epigastric
     region over the stomach
  57. Right Lumbar
     right middle lateral region.
  58. Left Lumbar
     left middle lateral region.
  59. Umbilical 
    in the center, between the right and left lumbar region; at the navel.
  60. Right Iliac (Inguinal)
     right lower lateral region.
  61. Left Iliac (Inguinal) 
    left lower lateral region.
  62. Hypogastric 
    lower middle region below the navel.
  63. Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) 
    contains the right lobe of  the liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, and part of the  small and large intestines.
  64. Left Upper (LUQ) 
    contains the left lobe of the liver, stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestines.
  65. Right Lower (RLQ) 
    • contains part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, and right ureter.
    • Left Lower (LLQ) 
    • contains part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, and left ureter.
    • Some organs are located half in the right quadrant and half in the left quadrant.  These organs are referred to as being in the midline of the body. 
  66. abdomen  
    abdomin/o
  67. ankle (tarsus)  
    tars/o
  68. arm  
     brach/i
  69. back   
    poster
  70. bones  
     oste/o
  71. breast   
    mast; mamm/o
  72. cheek   
    bucc/o
  73. chest  
     thorac/o
  74. ear  
     ot/o
  75. elbow   
    cubital; olecran/o
  76. eye   
    ophthalm/o; ocul/o; opt/o
  77. finger   
    dactyl/o
  78. foot   
    pod/o
  79. gums   
    gingiv
  80. hand   
    manus; chir/o
  81. head   
    cephal/o
  82. heart   
    cardi/o
  83. hip   
    coxa
  84. leg   
    crur
  85. liver   
    hepat/o
  86. lungs   
    pulm/o; pulmon/o; pneum/o;    pneumon/o
  87. mouth   
    or/o
  88. muscle s  
    muscul/o
  89. navel  
     umbilic; omphal/o
  90. neck  
     cervic/o
  91. nerves   
    neur/o
  92. nose  
     nas/o; rhin/o
  93. ribs   
    cost/o
  94. side   
    later
  95. skin   
    derm/a; dermat/o; derm/o; cutane/o
  96. skull   
    crani/o
  97. stomach  
    gastr/o
  98. teeth   
    dent
  99. temple   
    tempor
  100. thigh bone  
    femor/o
  101. throat (pharynx) 
    pharyng/o
  102. thumb   
    pollex
  103. tongue   
    lingu/o; gloss/o
  104. wrist (carpus)  
    carp/o
  105. abdomin/o
    abdomen  
  106. tars/o
    ankle (tarsus)  
  107. brach/i
     arm  
  108. poster
    back   
  109. oste/o
    bones  
  110. mast; mamm/o
    breast   
  111. bucc/o
    cheek   
  112. thorac/o
    chest  
  113. ot/o
    ear  
  114. cubital; olecran/o
    elbow   
  115. ophthalm/o; ocul/o; opt/o
    eye   
  116. dactyl/o
    finger   
  117. pod/o
    foot   
  118. gingiv
    gums   
  119. manus; chir/o
    hand   
  120. cephal/o
    head   
  121. cardi/o
    heart   
  122. coxa
    hip   
  123. crur
    leg   
  124. hepat/o
    liver   
  125. pulm/o; pulmon/o; pneum/o;    pneumon/o
    lungs   
  126. or/o
    mouth   
  127. muscul/o
    muscle s  
  128. umbilic; omphal/o
    navel  
  129. cervic/o
    neck  
  130. neur/o
    nerves   
  131. nas/o; rhin/o
    nose  
  132. cost/o
    ribs   
  133. later
    side   
  134. derm/a; dermat/o; derm/o; cutane/o
    skin   
  135. crani/o
    skull   
  136. gastr/o
    stomach  
  137. dent
    teeth   
  138. tempor
    temple   
  139. femor/o
    thigh bone  
  140. pharyng/o
    throat (pharynx) 
  141. pollex
    thumb   
  142. lingu/o; gloss/o
    tongue   
  143. carp/o
    wrist (carpus)  
  144. The five medical uses for drugs are: 
    • Therapeutic Use 
    • Diagnostic Use
    • Curative Use 
  145. Replacement Use 
    certain drugs are used to replace substances normally found in the body. 
  146. Preventive or Prophylactic Use 
    certain drugs are used to ward off or lessen the severity of a disease.
  147. Therapeutic Use 
    drugs used in the treatment of a disease or condition to relieve the symptoms or to sustain the patient until other measures are instituted. 
  148. Diagnostic Use 
    certain drugs are used in conjunction with radiology to allow physicians to pinpoint the location of a disease process. 
  149. Curative Use 
    certain drugs that kill or remove the causative agent of a disease. 
  150. Replacement Use 
    certain drugs are used to replace substances normally found in the body. 
  151. Preventive or Prophylactic Use 
    certain drugs are used to ward off or lessen the severity of a disease.
  152. Chemical Name 
    usually the formula that denotes the composition of the drug.  It is made up of numbers and letters that represent the drug’s molecular structure. 
  153. Generic Name 
    the drug’s official name and is descriptive of its chemical structure.  The generic name is written in lowercase and can be manufactured by more than one pharmaceutical company. 
  154. Trade or Brand Name 
    registered by the U.S. Patent Office as well as approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  A trade or brand name is capitalized.
  155. Adverse Reactions 
    is an unfavorable or harmful unintended  action of a drug. 
  156. Drug Interaction 
    may occur when one drug potentiates substance.     
  157. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) 
    • is a set of rules passed in 1996 that must be followed by doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers to ensure that all medical records, medical billing, and patient accounts meet certain consistent standards with regard to documentation, handling, and privacy.  In addition, HIPAA requires that all patients be able to assess their own records, correct errors or omissions, and be informed about how personal information is shared or used, as well as be notified about privacy procedures.  HIPAA also: 
    •  1. Includes provisions designed to encourage electronic transactions. 
    • 2. Requires safeguards to protect the security and confidentiality of health information, covering health plans, health care clearinghouses, and those health care providers who conduct certain financial and administrative transactions 
  158. Patient Information Form 
     a document that is filled out by the patient on the first visit to the physician’s office and then updated as necessary, providing data that relates directly to the patient including last name, first name, sex, date of birth (DOB), marital status, street address, city, state, zip code, telephone number, social security number, employment status, address and phone number of employer, the name and contact information for the person who is responsible for the patient’s bill, and vital information concerning who should be contacted in the case of an emergency. 
  159. (Hx) 
    Medical History a document describing past and current history of all medical conditions experienced by the patient. 
  160. (PE) 
     Physical Examination– a record that includes a current head-to toe assessment of the patient’s physical condition. 
  161. Consent Form 
     a signed document by the patient or legal guardian giving permission for treatment. 
  162. Informed Consent Form 
    a signed document by the patient or legal guardian that explains the purpose, risks, and benefits of a procedure and serves as proof that the patient was properly informed before undergoing a procedure. 
  163. Physician’s Orders 
    a record of the prescribed care, medication, tests, and treatments for a given patient. 
  164. Nurse’s Notes 
    a record of a patient’s care that includes vital signs, particularly temperature, pulse and respiration (TPR) and blood pressure (BP), and treatments, procedures, and patient’s response to such care. 
  165. Physician’s Progress Notes  
    a documentation given by the physician regarding the patient’s condition, results of the physicians examination, summary of test results, plan of treatment, and updating data as appropriate (assessment and diagnosis [Dx]).
  166. Consultation Reports 
    documentation given by specialist whom the physician has asked to evaluate the patient. 
  167. Ancillary/Miscellaneous Reports 
    • documentation of procedures or therapies provided during a patient’s care, such as physical therapy, 
    • respiratory therapy, or chemotherapy. 
  168. Diagnostic Test/Laboratory Reports
     documents providing the results of all diagnostic and laboratory tests performed on the patient. 
  169. Operative Report 
    a documentation from the surgeon detailing the operation, including the preoperative and postoperative diagnosis, specific details of the surgical procedure, how well the patient tolerated the procedure, and if there were any complications. 
  170. Anesthesiology Report 
    a documentation from the attending anesthesiologist or anesthetist that includes a detailed account of anesthesia during surgery, which drugs were used, dose, and time given, patient response, monitoring of vital signs, how well the patient tolerated the anesthesia, and if there were any complications. 
  171. Pathology Report
    •  a documentation from the pathologist regarding the findings or results of samples taken from the patient such as bone marrow, blood, or tissue. 
    • Discharge Summary (Clinical Resumé, Clinical Summary, or Discharge Abstract) 
    • an outline summary of the patient’s hospital care, including date of admission, diagnosis, course of treatment and patient’s response, tests results, final diagnosis, follow-up plans, and date of discharge. 
    • SOAP: Chart Note 
    • SOAP  (subjective, objective, assessment, plan) chart notes are written to improve communication among all those caring for the patient.  It is a method of displaying patient’s data in a concise, organized format. 
  172. Subjective 
    symptoms the patient feels and describes to the health care observer.  These symptoms arise within the individual and are not perceptible to an observer; includes any allergies as reported by the patient and the patient’s chief complaint (CC). 
  173. Objective
    • symptoms that can be observed including vital signs, data relating to the physical examination (PE), such as height (Ht), weight (Wt), general appearance, condition of the lungs, heart, abdomen, musculoskeletal and nervous systems, and the skin.  The results of laboratory and diagnostic tests may be included. 
    • Assessment 
    • includes diagnosis of the patient’s condition. 
  174. Plan 
    includes the management and treatment regimen for the patient; may include laboratory tests, physical therapy, diet therapy, medication, medical and surgical interventions, patient referrals, patient teaching, and follow-up directions.

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