A&P Lecture Quiz 1 (Ch.1-3)

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A&P Lecture Quiz 1 (Ch.1-3)
2013-01-21 23:34:14
Anatomy Physiology

Ch. 1-3 basic info
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  1. What is the function of the integumentary system?
    Provides protection, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, **helps produce Vitamin D**
  2. What composes the integumentary system?
    • Skin
    • hair
    • nails
    • Sweat glands
  3. What is the function of the skeletal system?
    Provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat.
  4. What composes the skeletal system?
    • Bones
    • Associated cartliages
    • ligaments
    • joints
  5. What is the function of the muscular system?
    produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat
  6. The muscular system consists of.....
    • muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons
    • (ex: Temporalis, Pectoralis Major, Sartorius, Gastrocnemius, Rectus Abdominis, Biceps Brachii, Quadriceps Femoris)
  7. What is the function of the lymphatic system?
    removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, absorbs fats from digestive tract
  8. What makes up the lymphatic system?
    Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs (such as: tonsils, thymus, cervical lymph node, axillary lymph node, mammary plexus, thoracic duct, spleen, lymphatic vessel, inguinal lymph node)
  9. What is the function of the respiratory system?
    • **Gas exchange**
    • exchanges O2 and CO2 between the blood and air and regulates blood pH
  10. What makes up the respiratory system?
    • Lungs
    • nasal cavity
    • nose
    • pharynx (throat)
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
  11. What is the function of the digestive system?
    perfroms the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes
  12. What makes up the digestive system?
    • Pharynx
    • Oral cavity
    • salivary glands
    • Esophagus
    • stomach
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • liver
    • gall bladder
    • appendix
    • rectum
    • anus
  13. What is the function of the nervous system?
    a major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiological processes, and intellectual functions.
  14. What makes up the nervous system?
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
    • nerves
    • sensory receptors
    • cauda equina
  15. What is the function of the endocrine system?
    a major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions
  16. What composes the endocrine system?
    • Hypothalamus
    • pituitary
    • pineal gland
    • thyroid
    • parathyroids
    • thymus
    • adrenals
    • pancreas
    • ovaries (females)
    • testes (males)
  17. What is the function of the cardiovascular system?
    transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature
  18. What makes up the cardiovascular system?
    • carotid artery
    • superior vena cava
    • jugular vein
    • heart
    • pulmonary trunk
    • brachial artery
    • inferior vena cava
    • aorta
    • femoral artery & vein
  19. What is the function of the urinary system?
    removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance.
  20. What is the urinary system composed of?
    • Kidney
    • ureter
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  21. What is the function of the female reproductive system?
    produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviours
  22. What composes the female reproductive system?
    • Mammary gland
    • uterine tube
    • ovary
    • uterus
    • vagina
  23. What is the function of the male reproductive system?
    Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviours
  24. What composes the male reproductive system?
    • seminal vesicle
    • ductus deferens
    • prostate gland
    • testis
    • epididymis
    • penis
  25. What are the levels of organization for the human body?
    Atoms -> molecules -> cells -> tissues -> organ -> organ system -> organism
  26. What is the definition of anatomy?
    scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure
  27. What is the definition of physiology?
    scientific investigation of the processes/function of living things
  28. R U N M R S L I D E C
    • Respiratory
    • Urinary
    • Nervous
    • Muscular
    • Reproductive
    • Skeletal
    • Lymphatic
    • Integumentary
    • Digestive
    • Endocrine
    • Cardiovascular
  29. What are tissues?
    A group of cells with the same function
  30. What are the 6 characteristics of life?
    • 1. Organization
    • 2. Metabolism
    • 3. Responsiveness
    • 4. Growth
    • 5. Development
    • 6. Reproduction
  31. What is organization in the characteristics of life?
    Condition in which there are specific relationships and functions
  32. What is metabolism in the characteristics of life?
    All chemical reactions of the body
  33. What is responsiveness in the characteristics of life?
    Ability to sense changes and adjust
  34. What is growth in the characteristics of life?
    Increase in size and/or number of cells
  35. What is development in the characteristics of life?
    • Changes in an organism over time; 2 kinds
    • differentiation- change from general to specific (ex: cells to embryo to fetus)
    • morphogenesis- change in shape of tissues and organs (ex: puberty)
  36. What is reproduction in the characteristics of life?
    New cells or organisms
  37. What are the 3 parts to a feedback system?
    • 1. Receptor
    • 2. Control Center
    • 3. Effector
  38. What is the job of the receptor in a feedback system?
    to sense/detect
  39. What is the job of the control center in a feedback system?
    it watches the set point and gives direction
  40. What is the job of the effector in a feedback system?
    to cause action
  41. What is a stimulus?
    deviation from the set point, detected by receptor
  42. What is a response?
    it is produced by the effector
  43. Name the 3 parts of negative feedback:
    • reverses deviation
    • returns to normal range
    • restores function
  44. negative feedback = __________
  45. What are 3 examples of negative feedback?
    • Blood glucose
    • Blood pH
    • Body temperature
  46. Positive feedback makes.....?
    deviation from the set point greater
  47. Give an example of positive feedback
  48. Is negative feedback good or bad? Is positive feedback good or bad?
    • Negative = good
    • Postive = bad
  49. **Random**   What are baroreceptors?
    receptors inside blood vessels
  50. What is the standard anatomical position?
    Body erect, face forward, feet together, palms up
  51. Mid-sagittal means....
    Perfect line in the middle
  52. Para-sagittal means....
    more to either the left or right, not in the middle
  53. Cavities.....
    Enclose something (organs)
  54. The dorsal cavity contains..
    the brain and spinal cord
  55. The ventral cavity...
    Encloses organs in the trunk
  56. Serous membranes with fluids means....
    reduced friction
  57. Visceral means..
  58. Parietal means..
  59. Retro-
  60. What are the major elements that make up organic molecules?
    • H
    • C
    • N
    • O
  61. The smallest unit with its own property is ____
    the atom
  62. What are isotopes?
    When we don't have the same number of protons and electrons in an atom
  63. Ionic bonding means
    exchanging electrons
  64. Covalent bonding means
    sharing electrons
  65. Cations are
    positively charged ions
  66. Anions are
    negatively charged ions
  67. Single covalent bond:
    2 atoms share one pair of electrons
  68. Double covalent bond:
    2 atoms share four electrons
  69. Nonpolar covalent bond:
    electrons shared equally
  70. H2O is
    a polar molecule; oxygen is slightly negative
  71. Hydrogen bonds do NOT form new molecules, instead they _____
    bring molecules together
  72. What is metabolism?
    a chemical reaction that either builds or degrades
  73. Anabolic reactions = ____
  74. Examples of anabolic reactions:
    dehydration synthesis, photosynthesis
  75. Catabolic reations = ______
  76. Examples of catabolic reactions:
    hydrolysis, cellular respiration
  77. Oxidation means:
  78. Reduction means:
  79. What are catalysts?
    increase the rate of chemical reactions
  80. What is activation energy?
    minimum energy reactants must have to start a chemical reaction
  81. Name 8 characteristics of enzymes:
    • Speed up reactants (catalysts)
    • proteins
    • specific to what they bind
    • can be altered/denatured
    • active site to bind
    • re-usable
    • sometimes need cofactors
    • lower activation energy
  82. Water has adhesive properties, meaning...?
    it likes to stick to other molecules
  83. Water also has cohesive properties, meaning...?
    water likes to stick to water
  84. What is the pH of blood?
  85. What is 0 on the pH scale?
    the most acidic, it has more H+
  86. What is 14 on the pH scale?
    The most basic, it has more OH-
  87. What is the most acidic compound?
  88. What is the most basic compound?
  89. What does a buffer have the ability to do?
    resist changes
  90. What are macromolecules?
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
  91. Amino acids are..?
    The building blocks of proteins
  92. Most of the volume of an atom is occupied by the.....?
  93. Name 4 characteristics of the plasma membrane:
    • Hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails hold it together (2 layers)
    • Integral proteins going through it (cholesterol)
    • Selectively permeable
    • Phospholipid bilayer
  94. What is the Fluid Mosaic Model?
    Structures in membrane always moving
  95. What is diffusion?
    When a substance goes from an area of high concentration to low concentration
  96. Name the 4 characteristics of molecules that can go through simple diffusion
    • Small
    • Non-ionized
    • Non-polar
    • Lipophilic
  97. What is the basic structure of the eukaryotic cell?
    • Plasma membrane
    • Cytoplasm containing organelles
    • Nucleus
  98. What is the plasma membrane?
    separation of intracellular v. extracellular materials inside of membrane has slightly negative charge
  99. Name the two types of membrane proteins:
    • integral/intrinsic
    • peripheral/extrinsic
  100. What are integral/intrinsic proteins?
    Extend deeply into membrane, often extending from one surface to the other; can form channels through the membrane
  101. What are peripheral/extrinsic proteins?
    attached to integral/intrinsic proteins at either the inner or outer surface of the lipid bilayer
  102. What are marker molecules?
    • Glycoproteins & glycolipids:
    • allows cells to identify one another or other molecules
    • (immunity, intercellular communication, recognition of oocyte by sperm cell)
  103. What are cadherins?
    proteins that attach to other cells
  104. What are integrins?
    proteins that attach cells to extracellular molecules
  105. What are transport proteins?
    • integral proteins that allow ions or molecules to move from one side of the plasma membrane to the other; include channel proteins, carrier proteins, and ATP-powered pumps;
    • are specific to the molecules they allow to pass through
  106. Name the 3 types of channel proteins:
    • non-gated ion channels
    • ligand gated ion channels
    • voltage gated ion channels
  107. Non-gated ion channels are...?
    • always open, specific.
    • Ex: Ca2+ ion channel
  108. Ligand gated ion channels are...?
    only open when it binds to a specific molecule
  109. Voltage gated ion channels are...?
    need electrical charge to open
  110. Carrier proteins/ transporters are...?
    • rate limited
    • integral proteins: move ions from one side of the plasma membrane to the other
  111. What are uniporters?
    moves one particle
  112. What are symporters?
    moves 2 particles in the same direction at the same time
  113. What are antiporters?
    moves 2 particles in different directions at the same time
  114. What are receptor proteins?
    function as binding sites for chemical signals in the extracellular fluid; binding of chemical signals to receptors triggers cellular responses
  115. NaK pump needs _______ to transport Na+ ________ the concentration gradient
    • ATP (energy)
    • against
  116. Na+ ligated channels need _______ to open the door, but it can't go through
  117. **Cystic Fibrosis is an F- channel.....
    mess up
  118. GPCR use..
    a ligand, then use intercellular
  119. What are the 3 subunits of G-protein complexes?
    • Alpha
    • Beta
    • Gamma
  120. A G-protein complex will only associate with a receptor that has a _____ signal bound to it. In its _______ state, the alpha subunit of the G-protein complex has __________ diphosphate (GDP) attached to it.
    • Chemical
    • Unassociated
    • Guanosine
  121. In a G-protein complex, the activated alpha subunit can stimulate a cell response in at least 3 ways:
    • by means of intracellular chemical signals
    • by the opening of ion channels in the plasma membrane
    • by the activation of enzymes associated with the plasma membrane
  122. What is the function of the plasma membrane?
    the outer boundary of cells; controls the entry & exit of substances; receptor proteins function in intercellular communication; marker molecules enable cells to recognize one another
  123. Studying structural changes from conception to adulthood is called
    developmental anatomy
  124. Embryology is the study of
    conception to the 8th week
  125. The study of cellular structure is referred to as
  126. a histologist studies the anatomical structure of
  127. Gross anatomy refers to
    study of structures that can be seen without a microscope
  128. Studying one body system at a time is
    systematic anatomy
  129. Studying all structures contained in the arm (for example) is
    regional anatomy
  130. Surface anatomy refers to
    the study of the external form of the body in relation to deeper structures
  131. Creating pictures of internal body structures is called
    anatomical imaging
  132. A cell physiologist would study
    the processes occurring in cells
  133. Studying how the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines function together to digest food would be an example of
    systemic physiology
  134. Basic components are
  135. Basic components are joined together to form
  136. What are the 4 basic types of tissue?
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
  137. Metabolism is the
    organisms ability to break down molecules
  138. Responsiveness is
    sensing changes in the environment and adjusting to those changes
  139. If you lay down on your back you are
  140. If you lay down on your stomach you are
  141. The proper anatomical term for up is
  142. The proper anatomical term for down is
  143. The proper anatomical term for front is
  144. The proper anatomical term for back is
  145. The term cephalic is synonymous with
  146. The term caudal is synonymous with
  147. In humans, the term ventral surface refers to
    the belly
  148. In humans, the term dorsal surface refers to
    the back
  149. The end of a structure nearer the point of origin is
  150. The end of a structure farther from the point of origin is
  151. A structure closer to the midline of the body is said to be
  152. A structure farther from the midline of the body is said to be
  153. Structures near the body surface are referred to as
  154. Structures that are in the interior of the body are said to be
  155. Name the 4 quadrants of the abdomen

          1 _|_ 2
          3   |   4
    • 1. Right upper quad.
    • 2. Left upper quad.
    • 3. Right lower quad.
    • 4. Left lower quad.
  156. Name the 9 regions of the abdomen

    • 1. Right hypochondriac
    • 2. Epigastric
    • 3. Left hypochondriac
    • 4. Right lumbar
    • 5. Umbillical
    • 6. Left lumbar
    • 7. Right iliac
    • 8. Hypogastric
    • 9. Left iliac
  157. What plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions?
  158. What vertical plane divides the body into anterior and posterior portions?
  159. Cutting through the long axis of an organ creates
    a longitudinal section
  160. Cutting at right angles to the long axis of an organ creates a
    transverse section
  161. An oblique section is created by a cut made
    across the long axis at other than a right angle
  162. Where is the thoracic cavity located?
    surrounded by the rib cage
  163. What is the median portion of the thoracic cavity?
  164. On either side of the median portion in the thoracic cavity are found the
  165. The abdominal cavity is enclosed by the
    abdominal muscles
  166. The abdominal cavity contains the
    • stomach
    • liver
    • intestines
    • kidneys
    • spleen
    • pancreas
  167. The pelvic cavity is enclosed by
    the pelvic bones
  168. The pelvic cavity contains the
    • urinary bladder
    • internal reproductive organs
  169. Serous membranes are found in...
    trunk cavities and within organs
  170. Visceral serous membranes will be found
    covering the organ
  171. Parietal serous membranes will be found
    on the wall/ outer part of the organ
  172. Between serous membranes is serous fluid which
    reduces friction
  173. The pericardial cavity is found
    surrounding the heart
  174. The pleural cavity is found
    surrounding the lungs
  175. The peritoneal cavity is found
    surrounding the abdominal cavity
  176. Mesenteries are composed of 2 layers of
    peritoneums fused together
  177. Mesenteries connect to the
    visceral peritoneums
  178. Functionally, mesenteries anchor organs to the body wall and provide....
    a pathway for nerves and blood vessels to reach organs
  179. Organs that are directly attached to the body wall and covered only with a parietal peritoneum are referred to as being...
  180. Mass represents
    the amount of matter
  181. Weight is
    caused by the gravitational force acting on mass
  182. How many pounds in a kilogram?
  183. How many grams in a kilogram?
  184. Isotopes are
    2 or more of the same element that have the same number of protons and electrons but different number of nuetrons
  185. An atom that lost or gained an electron is called
    an ion
  186. A positively charged ion is referred to as
    a cation
  187. A negatively charged ion is referred to as
    an anion
  188. Hydrogen bonds result when a positive charged
    hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to the negatively charged O,N, or F
  189. Hydrogen bonds play the important role of determining
    the shape of complex molecules
  190. Mechanical energy results from
    the position or movement of objects
  191. Heat energy is energy that
    flows between objects that are at a different temperature
  192. The activation energy is the minimum
    amount of energy that reactants must have to start a chemical reaction
  193. Water acts as a lubricant by preventing
  194. Water acts as a cushion by preventing
  195. Water is produced in a
    dehydration synthesis reaction
  196. Water is required in a
    hydrolysis decomposition reaction
  197. A mixture of materials that separate from each other when the mixing stops are a part of a
  198. What is a colloid?
    A mix in which a dispersed substance is distributed throughout a dispersing substance
  199. Osmoles express the number
    of particles in a solution
  200. Osmolality represents the number, not
    type, of particles in a solution
  201. An oxygen molecule consists of 2 Oxygen atoms bonded together by a
    double covalent bond
  202. Carbohydrates are composed of
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  203. For every 1 atom in a carbohydrate there are 2
    hydrogen atoms
  204. Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide
  205. What are 5-carbon monosaccharides?
  206. Hexoses are
    6-carbon monosaccharides
  207. Isomers are molecules with
    the same number and type of atom, but different 3D arrangements
  208. Dissacharides are formed by
    2 simple sugars bound together through s dehydration reaction
  209. Polysaccharides consist of
    many monosaccharides bound together to form long chains that are either straight or bent
  210. Lipids are composed of what 3 things?
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  211. Lipids provide
    protection and insulation
  212. The phospholipid side with phosphate on the end is
  213. Steroids are carbon atoms bound together into
    4 ring like structures
  214. All proteins contain
    • hydrogen
    • carbon
    • oxygen
  215. Some proteins can also contain (4):
    • sulfur
    • phosphorous
    • iron
    • iodine
  216. Covalent bonds between amino acids are called
    peptide bonds
  217. How many structural levels are there to a protein?
  218. Nucleic acids are composed of
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
    • phosphate
  219. ATP stores what kind of energy?