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What is the function of the integumentary system?
Provides protection, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, **helps produce Vitamin D**
What composes the integumentary system?
- Sweat glands
What is the function of the skeletal system?
Provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat.
What composes the skeletal system?
- Associated cartliages
What is the function of the muscular system?
produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat
The muscular system consists of.....
- muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons
- (ex: Temporalis, Pectoralis Major, Sartorius, Gastrocnemius, Rectus Abdominis, Biceps Brachii, Quadriceps Femoris)
What is the function of the lymphatic system?
removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, absorbs fats from digestive tract
What makes up the lymphatic system?
Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs (such as: tonsils, thymus, cervical lymph node, axillary lymph node, mammary plexus, thoracic duct, spleen, lymphatic vessel, inguinal lymph node)
What is the function of the respiratory system?
- **Gas exchange**
- exchanges O2 and CO2 between the blood and air and regulates blood pH
What makes up the respiratory system?
- nasal cavity
- pharynx (throat)
What is the function of the digestive system?
perfroms the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes
What makes up the digestive system?
- Oral cavity
- salivary glands
- small intestine
- large intestine
- gall bladder
What is the function of the nervous system?
a major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiological processes, and intellectual functions.
What makes up the nervous system?
- Spinal cord
- sensory receptors
- cauda equina
What is the function of the endocrine system?
a major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions
What composes the endocrine system?
- pineal gland
- ovaries (females)
- testes (males)
What is the function of the cardiovascular system?
transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature
What makes up the cardiovascular system?
- carotid artery
- superior vena cava
- jugular vein
- pulmonary trunk
- brachial artery
- inferior vena cava
- femoral artery & vein
What is the function of the urinary system?
removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance.
What is the urinary system composed of?
- urinary bladder
What is the function of the female reproductive system?
produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviours
What composes the female reproductive system?
- Mammary gland
- uterine tube
What is the function of the male reproductive system?
Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviours
What composes the male reproductive system?
- seminal vesicle
- ductus deferens
- prostate gland
What are the levels of organization for the human body?
Atoms -> molecules -> cells -> tissues -> organ -> organ system -> organism
What is the definition of anatomy?
scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure
What is the definition of physiology?
scientific investigation of the processes/function of living things
R U N M R S L I D E C
What are tissues?
A group of cells with the same function
What are the 6 characteristics of life?
- 1. Organization
- 2. Metabolism
- 3. Responsiveness
- 4. Growth
- 5. Development
- 6. Reproduction
What is organization in the characteristics of life?
Condition in which there are specific relationships and functions
What is metabolism in the characteristics of life?
All chemical reactions of the body
What is responsiveness in the characteristics of life?
Ability to sense changes and adjust
What is growth in the characteristics of life?
Increase in size and/or number of cells
What is development in the characteristics of life?
- Changes in an organism over time; 2 kinds
- differentiation- change from general to specific (ex: cells to embryo to fetus)
- morphogenesis- change in shape of tissues and organs (ex: puberty)
What is reproduction in the characteristics of life?
New cells or organisms
What are the 3 parts to a feedback system?
- 1. Receptor
- 2. Control Center
- 3. Effector
What is the job of the receptor in a feedback system?
What is the job of the control center in a feedback system?
it watches the set point and gives direction
What is the job of the effector in a feedback system?
to cause action
What is a stimulus?
deviation from the set point, detected by receptor
What is a response?
it is produced by the effector
Name the 3 parts of negative feedback:
- reverses deviation
- returns to normal range
- restores function
negative feedback = __________
What are 3 examples of negative feedback?
- Blood glucose
- Blood pH
- Body temperature
Positive feedback makes.....?
deviation from the set point greater
Give an example of positive feedback
Is negative feedback good or bad? Is positive feedback good or bad?
- Negative = good
- Postive = bad
**Random** What are baroreceptors?
receptors inside blood vessels
What is the standard anatomical position?
Body erect, face forward, feet together, palms up
Perfect line in the middle
more to either the left or right, not in the middle
Enclose something (organs)
The dorsal cavity contains..
the brain and spinal cord
The ventral cavity...
Encloses organs in the trunk
Serous membranes with fluids means....
What are the major elements that make up organic molecules?
The smallest unit with its own property is ____
What are isotopes?
When we don't have the same number of protons and electrons in an atom
Ionic bonding means
Covalent bonding means
positively charged ions
negatively charged ions
Single covalent bond:
2 atoms share one pair of electrons
Double covalent bond:
2 atoms share four electrons
Nonpolar covalent bond:
electrons shared equally
a polar molecule; oxygen is slightly negative
Hydrogen bonds do NOT form new molecules, instead they _____
bring molecules together
What is metabolism?
a chemical reaction that either builds or degrades
Anabolic reactions = ____
Examples of anabolic reactions:
dehydration synthesis, photosynthesis
Catabolic reations = ______
Examples of catabolic reactions:
hydrolysis, cellular respiration
What are catalysts?
increase the rate of chemical reactions
What is activation energy?
minimum energy reactants must have to start a chemical reaction
Name 8 characteristics of enzymes:
- Speed up reactants (catalysts)
- specific to what they bind
- can be altered/denatured
- active site to bind
- sometimes need cofactors
- lower activation energy
Water has adhesive properties, meaning...?
it likes to stick to other molecules
Water also has cohesive properties, meaning...?
water likes to stick to water
What is the pH of blood?
What is 0 on the pH scale?
the most acidic, it has more H+
What is 14 on the pH scale?
The most basic, it has more OH-
What is the most acidic compound?
What is the most basic compound?
What does a buffer have the ability to do?
What are macromolecules?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
Amino acids are..?
The building blocks of proteins
Most of the volume of an atom is occupied by the.....?
Name 4 characteristics of the plasma membrane:
- Hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails hold it together (2 layers)
- Integral proteins going through it (cholesterol)
- Selectively permeable
- Phospholipid bilayer
What is the Fluid Mosaic Model?
Structures in membrane always moving
What is diffusion?
When a substance goes from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Name the 4 characteristics of molecules that can go through simple diffusion
What is the basic structure of the eukaryotic cell?
- Plasma membrane
- Cytoplasm containing organelles
What is the plasma membrane?
separation of intracellular v. extracellular materials inside of membrane has slightly negative charge
Name the two types of membrane proteins:
What are integral/intrinsic proteins?
Extend deeply into membrane, often extending from one surface to the other; can form channels through the membrane
What are peripheral/extrinsic proteins?
attached to integral/intrinsic proteins at either the inner or outer surface of the lipid bilayer
What are marker molecules?
- Glycoproteins & glycolipids:
- allows cells to identify one another or other molecules
- (immunity, intercellular communication, recognition of oocyte by sperm cell)
What are cadherins?
proteins that attach to other cells
What are integrins?
proteins that attach cells to extracellular molecules
What are transport proteins?
- integral proteins that allow ions or molecules to move from one side of the plasma membrane to the other; include channel proteins, carrier proteins, and ATP-powered pumps;
- are specific to the molecules they allow to pass through
Name the 3 types of channel proteins:
- non-gated ion channels
- ligand gated ion channels
- voltage gated ion channels
Non-gated ion channels are...?
- always open, specific.
- Ex: Ca2+ ion channel
Ligand gated ion channels are...?
only open when it binds to a specific molecule
Voltage gated ion channels are...?
need electrical charge to open
Carrier proteins/ transporters are...?
- rate limited
- integral proteins: move ions from one side of the plasma membrane to the other
What are uniporters?
moves one particle
What are symporters?
moves 2 particles in the same direction at the same time
What are antiporters?
moves 2 particles in different directions at the same time
What are receptor proteins?
function as binding sites for chemical signals in the extracellular fluid; binding of chemical signals to receptors triggers cellular responses
NaK pump needs _______ to transport Na+ ________ the concentration gradient
Na+ ligated channels need _______ to open the door, but it can't go through
**Cystic Fibrosis is an F- channel.....
a ligand, then use intercellular
What are the 3 subunits of G-protein complexes?
A G-protein complex will only associate with a receptor that has a _____ signal bound to it. In its _______ state, the alpha subunit of the G-protein complex has __________ diphosphate (GDP) attached to it.
In a G-protein complex, the activated alpha subunit can stimulate a cell response in at least 3 ways:
- by means of intracellular chemical signals
- by the opening of ion channels in the plasma membrane
- by the activation of enzymes associated with the plasma membrane
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
the outer boundary of cells; controls the entry & exit of substances; receptor proteins function in intercellular communication; marker molecules enable cells to recognize one another
Studying structural changes from conception to adulthood is called
Embryology is the study of
conception to the 8th week
The study of cellular structure is referred to as
a histologist studies the anatomical structure of
Gross anatomy refers to
study of structures that can be seen without a microscope
Studying one body system at a time is
Studying all structures contained in the arm (for example) is
Surface anatomy refers to
the study of the external form of the body in relation to deeper structures
Creating pictures of internal body structures is called
A cell physiologist would study
the processes occurring in cells
Studying how the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines function together to digest food would be an example of
Basic components are
Basic components are joined together to form
What are the 4 basic types of tissue?
Metabolism is the
organisms ability to break down molecules
sensing changes in the environment and adjusting to those changes
If you lay down on your back you are
If you lay down on your stomach you are
The proper anatomical term for up is
The proper anatomical term for down is
The proper anatomical term for front is
The proper anatomical term for back is
The term cephalic is synonymous with
The term caudal is synonymous with
In humans, the term ventral surface refers to
In humans, the term dorsal surface refers to
The end of a structure nearer the point of origin is
The end of a structure farther from the point of origin is
A structure closer to the midline of the body is said to be
A structure farther from the midline of the body is said to be
Structures near the body surface are referred to as
Structures that are in the interior of the body are said to be
Name the 4 quadrants of the abdomen
1 _|_ 2
3 | 4
- 1. Right upper quad.
- 2. Left upper quad.
- 3. Right lower quad.
- 4. Left lower quad.
Name the 9 regions of the abdomen
- 1. Right hypochondriac
- 2. Epigastric
- 3. Left hypochondriac
- 4. Right lumbar
- 5. Umbillical
- 6. Left lumbar
- 7. Right iliac
- 8. Hypogastric
- 9. Left iliac
What plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions?
What vertical plane divides the body into anterior and posterior portions?
Cutting through the long axis of an organ creates
a longitudinal section
Cutting at right angles to the long axis of an organ creates a
An oblique section is created by a cut made
across the long axis at other than a right angle
Where is the thoracic cavity located?
surrounded by the rib cage
What is the median portion of the thoracic cavity?
On either side of the median portion in the thoracic cavity are found the
The abdominal cavity is enclosed by the
The abdominal cavity contains the
The pelvic cavity is enclosed by
the pelvic bones
The pelvic cavity contains the
- urinary bladder
- internal reproductive organs
Serous membranes are found in...
trunk cavities and within organs
Visceral serous membranes will be found
covering the organ
Parietal serous membranes will be found
on the wall/ outer part of the organ
Between serous membranes is serous fluid which
The pericardial cavity is found
surrounding the heart
The pleural cavity is found
surrounding the lungs
The peritoneal cavity is found
surrounding the abdominal cavity
Mesenteries are composed of 2 layers of
peritoneums fused together
Mesenteries connect to the
Functionally, mesenteries anchor organs to the body wall and provide....
a pathway for nerves and blood vessels to reach organs
Organs that are directly attached to the body wall and covered only with a parietal peritoneum are referred to as being...
the amount of matter
caused by the gravitational force acting on mass
How many pounds in a kilogram?
How many grams in a kilogram?
2 or more of the same element that have the same number of protons and electrons but different number of nuetrons
An atom that lost or gained an electron is called
A positively charged ion is referred to as
A negatively charged ion is referred to as
Hydrogen bonds result when a positive charged
hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to the negatively charged O,N, or F
Hydrogen bonds play the important role of determining
the shape of complex molecules
Mechanical energy results from
the position or movement of objects
Heat energy is energy that
flows between objects that are at a different temperature
The activation energy is the minimum
amount of energy that reactants must have to start a chemical reaction
Water acts as a lubricant by preventing
Water acts as a cushion by preventing
Water is produced in a
dehydration synthesis reaction
Water is required in a
hydrolysis decomposition reaction
A mixture of materials that separate from each other when the mixing stops are a part of a
What is a colloid?
A mix in which a dispersed substance is distributed throughout a dispersing substance
Osmoles express the number
of particles in a solution
Osmolality represents the number, not
type, of particles in a solution
An oxygen molecule consists of 2 Oxygen atoms bonded together by a
double covalent bond
Carbohydrates are composed of
For every 1 atom in a carbohydrate there are 2
Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide
What are 5-carbon monosaccharides?
Isomers are molecules with
the same number and type of atom, but different 3D arrangements
Dissacharides are formed by
2 simple sugars bound together through s dehydration reaction
Polysaccharides consist of
many monosaccharides bound together to form long chains that are either straight or bent
Lipids are composed of what 3 things?
protection and insulation
The phospholipid side with phosphate on the end is
Steroids are carbon atoms bound together into
4 ring like structures
Some proteins can also contain (4):
Covalent bonds between amino acids are called
How many structural levels are there to a protein?
Nucleic acids are composed of
ATP stores what kind of energy?