Chapter 1: Terms

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Chapter 1: Terms
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2013-01-20 09:54:10
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  1. Hominids
    Humans and other creatures that walk upright, such as australopithecines
  2. Prehistory
    The time before the invention of writing - 5,000 years ago
  3. Archeology
    uncover the story of prehistoric people by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements
  4. The Leakey family
    archeologists that led a scientific expedition to the region of Laetoli in Tanzania in East Africa
  5. Lucy
    found in Ethiopia (1,000 miles north of Leaky) was an adult female hominid by Donald Johanson
  6. Homo habilis
    found by Louis and Mary leakey that made tools of lava rock to make tools to cut meat and crack open bones for survival in East Africa “man of skill”
  7. Homo erectus
    before Homo habilis left in East Africa “upright man”; more intelligent and adaptable species --> used technology
  8. Homo erectus
    first hominids to migrate 
  9. Homo sapiens
    species name for modern humans “wise men” who had larger brains
  10. Paleolithic Age
    Old Stone Age (earlier and longer part); chopping tools
  11. Neanderthals
    was an early form of homo sapiens; powerfully built (heavy slanted brows, well-developed muscles, and thick bones); religious (funerals), resourceful (caves and temporary shelters of wood and animal skins); able to hunt in subarctic regions of Europe
  12. Australopithecines
    hominids walked upright to travel and spot threatening animals and cary food and children; had opposable thumbs for small objects and making tools
  13. Cro-Magnon
    skelital remains are identical to modern humans; strong, 5’1”; migrated from North Africa to Europe and Asia; new tools and planned hunts; and had spoken language
  14. Altamira and Lascaux cave art
    magical rites, hunting rituals, or an attempt to mark the events during various seasons; symbolic > realistic (surrounding areas); 600 paintings and symbols in France
  15. Hunter-gatherers
    Nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods
  16. Agricultural/Neolithic Revolution
    scattered seeds--> coming back with new crops; change in climate; Jarmo; domestication of animals; slash-and-burn farming
  17. Catal Huyuk
    fertile plain in south-central Turkey; “forked mound”; settled life (specialized skill workers, cultural life, natural disasters, attacked)
  18. Bronze Age
    using bronze (not stone or copper) to fashion tools and weapons; copper and tin; started in Sumer
  19. Cuneiform
    wedge shaped writing in Sumer used by scribes in clay tablets written with stylus; later for dramatic events
  20. Ziggurat
    pyramid-shaped monument (temple) like the one in Ur who were used by priests to pray for god
  21. Ur
    early Sumer city; 30,000 people; flourishing urban civilization; had agricultual economy; traded; had zigurrats

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