Qrt 2 Basic Neuroanatomy Sec 2 Neurohistology

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bradley.knox
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193951
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Qrt 2 Basic Neuroanatomy Sec 2 Neurohistology
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2013-01-28 18:45:25
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neurohistology
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  1. What anatomical division is made up of the Brain, cerebellum and brain stem?
    Central nervous system
  2. What anatomical division includes Cranial nerves, spinal nerves and nerves from the spinal cord?
    Peripheral nervous system
  3. What functional division is made up of sensory nerves from the head, body wall, extremities and motor nerves to voluntary muscles?
    Somatic
  4. What function division is made up of sensory nerves from the visceral organs, and motor nerves to involuntary muscles and glands?
    Autonomic
  5. what are groups of cell bodies outside the CNS called?
    Ganglia
  6. What are cell bodies within the spinal cord called?
    Rexed Lamina
  7. What are the four classifications of white matter axons in the spinal cord?
    • 1. tracts
    • 2. Fasciculus
    • 3. Peduncles
    • 4. lemniscus
  8. What percent of the brain is neuronal?
    10%
  9. What are the two main types of cells that make up the nervous system?
    • 1. Neurons
    • 2. Neuroglial cells
  10. what are the neuroglia cells:  asrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells classified as?
    Central neuroglia
  11. What type of central neuroglia cells functions as structural support?
    astrocytes
  12. What type of central neuroglia cells function like white blood cells?
    microglia
  13. What type of central neuroglia cells line the ventricle walls?
    ependymal
  14. what type of neuroglia cells do schwann and satellite cells comprise? 
    Peripheral neuroglia
  15. What type of peripheral neuroglia cells insulate ganglia?
    Satellite cells (AKA amphicytes)
  16. What type of multipolar neuron has a long axon used for neurotransmission?
    Golgi type I
  17. What type of multipolar neuron has a short axon and is used in interneurons?
    Golgi Type II
  18. What type of neuron consists of many dendrites and a single axon
    multipolar
  19. What type of neuron is made of a single axon and single dendrite?
    Bipolar
  20. What is the function of bipolar neurons?
    convey special visceral and somatic stimuli?
  21. What type of neuron has no dendrites and a single axon?
    True unipolar
  22. Where are true unipolar neurons most commonly found?
    retina and hypothalamus
  23. What type of neuron is found in cranial and spinal ganglia?
    psuedounipolar
  24. What type of neuron has a single axon and dendrite that are fused?
    psuedounipolar
  25. Where are neurosecretory neurons mainly found?
    hypothalamus / neuroendocrine area
  26. What type of neurons display multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar morphologies?
    Neurosecretory
  27. What zone is comprised of dendrite, cell body and initial axonal segment (ending at axon hillock)?
    Dendritic zone
  28. what neuronal zone starts at axon hillock and ends just short of axonal terminals?
    axonal zone
  29. What neuronal zone includes axonal terminals, buttons, etc?
    Telodendritic zone (axon terminus)
  30. What organells in the soma are comprised of RER, Polysome, and free ribosome? and what are their functions?
    • Nissl bodies
    • synthesis of protein and amine
  31. What is responsible for synthesis of cholesterol and steroids in the soma?
    Golgi and SEr
  32. What stores glycogen in the soma?
    • nothing, they are dependent on the blood for glucose and oxygen.
    • DUH Stupid!
  33. What organells are responsible for secreting enzymes that destroy tissue?
    Lysosomes
  34. What organells provide structural integrity and move compounds within the neuron?
    Neurofiliments and microtubules 
  35. What chemical blocks the formation of microtubles and results in edema in the soma?
    Colchicine
  36. What is colchicine used to treat?
    Gout 
  37. What type of oligodendrocytes are found in grey matter close to perikarya?
    Perineuronal oligodendrocytes
  38. What is the most common type of synapses?
    axodendritic
  39. What is the function of receptor subtype D1?
    Up Regulates cAMP
  40. What is the function of receptor subtype D2?
    Down regulates cAMP
  41. What are all glial cells except microglia derived from?
    Neuroectoderm (neural tissue)
  42. What are microglia cells derived from?
    mesoderm
  43. What type of oligodendrocytes are found in white matter of CNS?
    Interfascicular oligodendrocytes
  44. What is the second most common type of glia cells?
    Astrocytes
  45. What are the main functions of fibrous astrocytes? and where are they found?
    • wrap capillaries
    • limited phagocytotic
    • found mainly in white matter
  46. What is the main function of Protoplasmic astrocytes and where are they found?
    • cover non-synaptic neuronal surfaces
    • found primarily in grey matter
  47. What type of glia cells are self motile, and capable of phagocytosis?
    Microglia
  48. What are the main functions of ependymal cells?
    • Line ventricles 
    • help move CSF
    • Contribute to production of CSF

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