Biology-Chapter 15

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Author:
AmyHulin
ID:
193958
Filename:
Biology-Chapter 15
Updated:
2013-01-20 15:17:42
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Biology
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Description:
Tracing Evolutionary History
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  1. pterosaurs-existed for 140 million years, extinct 65 million years ago, like most dinos.
    birds developed from feathered dinos 150 million years ago.
    bats diverged from insectivorous, tree-dwelling mammals 50 million years ago
    intro to chapter
  2. water vapor, methane, ammonia, hydrogen, nitrogen, NO OXYGEN
    conditions of early earth
  3. stromatolites- "stepping stones," built by ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes, 3.5 billion years old, single-celled
    earliest known forms of life
  4. the abiotic (nonliving) synthesis of small organic molecules, such as amino acids and nitrogenous bases
    first main stage in producing first cells
  5. the joining of these small molecules into polymers, such as proteins and nucleic acids
    second main stage in producing first cells
  6. the packaging of these molecules into "protocells," membrane-enclosed droplets that maintained an internal chemistry different from that of their surroundings
    third main stage in producing first cells
  7. the origin of self-replicating molecules that eventually made inheritance possible
    fourth main stage in producing first cells
  8. reshaped physical features of the planet, altered habitats that organisms live
    continental drift
  9. 5 distinct ___ _______ have occured over the past 500 million years
    mass extinctions
  10. occured 251 million years ago, at the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras (96% of marine, terrestial species became extinct during this time)
    permian mass extinction
  11. volcanic eruptions produced large amounts of CO2, causing global warming, resulted in less mixing of ocean waters, causing a reduced amount of oxygen to be available to marine organisms
    hypothesis for permian mass extinction
  12. occurred 65 million years ago, at the boundary between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras (50%+ of marine, terrestrial species, and dinos became extinct during this time)
    cretaceous mass extinction
  13. large asteroid hit the earth, causing a cloud of hot vapor and dust that killed many organisms immediately and others due to the climate change that followed
    hypothesis for cretaceous mass extinction
  14. term refers to the evolutionary history of a species or group of species
    phylogeny
  15. branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life; based largely on the system developed by Linnaeus in the 1700s
    taxonomy
  16. extension of taxonomy that examines evolutionary relationships
    systematics
  17. two-part scientific name of a species-GENUS is the first part (humans=homo sapiens)
    binomial
  18. kingdom
      phylum
        class
          order
            family
              genus
                species
    listing of Linnean taxa from most inclusive to least inclusive
  19. simplest, most likely choice for decision on topic ("principle of occam's razor")
    parsimony
  20. a more recent, more inclusive taxon
    domain
  21. branching diagram that reflects evolutionary history of a species (often revised based on new evidence) (ex: many researchers now group birds within the clade of reptiles instead of separating birds and reptiles into two differ classes)
    phylogenetic tree
  22. most widely used method in systematics (based on Darwin's concept that organisms both share characteristics with their ancestors and also differ from them)
    cladistics
  23. group of organisms with a common ancestor
    clade
  24. is now often used to construct phylogenetic trees using DNA or other molecules because the more recently two species have branched from a common ancestor the more similar their DNA should be
    molecular systematics
  25. gene's of particular organism
    genome
  26. used to estimate the actual time of evolutionary events if an organism's DNA mutates at a constant rate, then graphed its change
    molecular clock
  27. includes Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (archaea are more closely related to Bacteria than to Archaea)
    three-domain system of classification

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