LECTURE 5

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Author:
jskunz
ID:
193980
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LECTURE 5
Updated:
2013-03-06 21:07:19
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Osteology
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basic and appendicular osteology
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  1. Osteology
    study of bone tissue as well as the study of the individucal bones of the skeleton
  2. bone tissue
    is a major tissue component of the named bones of the body, third hardest substance in the body, hardness comes from high mineral content.
  3. organic portion of bone
    consists of same three general components of other connective tissues: cells, fibers and ground substance.
  4. Three types of bone cells
    osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
  5. osteoblasts
    single nucleated, metabolically active cells found on the surface of bone tissue. They secrete the fibers and the organic part of the ground substance.
  6. osteoid
    the organic part of the matrix of bone, fibers of bone are collagenous in nature and ground substance is a protein/polysaccharide
  7. Osteocytes
    relatively sedentary cells which are entrapped within the extracellular matrix.  Former osteoblasts which became imprisoned in the products of the own secretion
  8. osteoclasts
    large, multinucleated cells which are active in bone reabsorption.
  9. hydroxyapatite
    most common form of calcium phosphate (which is the mineral portion of bone).  bone mineral s are deposited on the collagenous fibers after the osteoblasts manufacture and extrude them
  10. lacunae
    small cavities in the extracellular matrix. when osteoblasts get imprisoned they become osteocytes. Mitotic division of osteoblasts prevent # from decreasing
  11. lamellae
    alternating layers of entrapped osteocytes and matrix, four types: concentric, interstitial, and external and internal circumferential lamellae
  12. concentric lamellae
    also called osteonal, lamellae that surround neurovascular channels within the cortex of the bone
  13. osteon
    a neurovascular structure surrounded by a set of concentric (osteonal) lamellae. functional subunits of bone. new osteons are formed after osteoclasts "cut" channels through the bone by reabsorbing it (process called bone remodeling) this process helps maintain proper blood calcium levels
  14. central canals
    in long bones, the neurovascular passageways where most osteons are longitudinally oriented
  15. nutrient canals
    (perforating canals) nurovascular passageways that pass through bone perpendicular to the long axis often lacking surrounding lamellae
  16. canaliculi
    tiny channels through the lamellae, contain cytoplasmic processes of the osteocytes and allow those located close to the vessels to exchange nutrients and wastes with those located farther from the vessels
  17. interstitial lamellae
    incomplete remnants of concentric and external circumferential lamellae
  18. external circumferential lamellae
    the several layers of lamellae that surround (encase) a whole bone
  19. internal circumferential lamellae
    corresponding layers of lamellae that line the medullary cavities of mature bones
  20. Two physical forms of bone tissue
    spongy and compact
  21. compact bone
    also called cortical bone, known as dense bone, relatively solid and forms the majority of the substance of most bones
  22. Spongy (trabecular) bone
    also called "cancellous" bone. consists of slender spicules and reinforcing struts which lend strength w/o excessive bulk. Found btwn inner and outer layers of compact bone of braincase, also on the ends of long bones where it provides reinforcement for overlaying articular surfaces
  23. total # of bones in the body and the groups they are divided into
    214, divided into two groups based on position in body. Appendicular and axial skeleton
  24. appendicular skeleton
    includes all of the bones associated with the limbs.
  25. each superior limb includes
    the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, eight carpal bones, 5 metacarpal bones, 14 phalanges and two sesamoid bones (at the base of the thumb
  26. each inferior limb includes
    os coxae (hip bone), femur bone, patella (a sesamoid bone) tibia, fibula, seven tarsal bones, five metatarsal bones, 14 phalanges and two more sesamoid bones (at base of big toe)
  27. bones of the axial skeleton
    divided into several groups consisting of those found within the head, the vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
  28. bones of the head
    include 8 that form the cranial cavity, 14 that form the face, 3 pairs of auditory ossicle and a single hyoid bone
  29. vertebral column typically composed of
    26 components that represent 33 originally separate vertebrae. 12 pairs of ribs and cartilaginous extensions from all but inferior two pairs extend to make direct or indirect contact with sternum
  30. supporting bones
    at junction of the appendicular and axial skeletons, some bones from each form the skeletal support for free limbs. these supporting bones comprise the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle
  31. pectoral girdle
    supports the free parts of the superior limbs which begin at the shoulders and extend distally. Includes sternum, clavicles and scapulaes
  32. pelvic girdle
    supports free parts of the inferior limbs, begin at the hip joint and extend distally.  includes bony sacrum (irregular bone from the axial skeleton) and right and lift os coxae (flat bones of the appendicular skeleton)
  33. 5 categories of bone classification
    long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, sesamoid bones
  34. Long bones
    those which are elongated in one dimension, found ONLY IN LIMBS where they act as supporting columns and articulate with each other to form joints and levers for locomotion.  88 long bones (44 pairs) and 56 of them are phalanges
  35. short bones
    include the 8 carpal bones within each wrist and seven tarsal bones within each ankle. 30 total. Most are somewhat cuboidal in shape
  36. flat bones
    significantly reduced in one dimension, include clavicles, scapulae, ribs, sternum, ossa coxae (bones of the pelvis) and many bones of the head
  37. irregular bones
    characterized by jutting processes, include vertebrae and several bones of the head
  38. sesamoid bones
    small (seedlike) bones embedded in some tendons, function as bearing surfaces and protect the tendons from frictional deterioration. largest is patella, total number is 10
  39. epiphysis
    end  - a general term applying to only long bones. typically enlarged in comparison to the diaphysis in order to create larger weight-bearing surfaces for articulations (joints)
  40. diaphysis
    body - general turn applying to only long bones
  41. periosteum
    envelope of connective tissue proper which all bones are encased in, covers the outer aspects except for articular surfaces, attachments of tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules, and ports of entry of nerves and vessels
  42. perforating fibers
    composed of collagen,microscopic,  firmly anchors the periosteum to the underlying bone tissue
  43. medullary cavity
    the hollow, inner portion of the bone
  44. endosteum
    thin layer of connective tissue proper that lines the medullary cavity, houses the bone marrow tissue
  45. red bone marrow
    bone marrow tissue, actively hemopoietic in young individuals
  46. yellow bone marrow
    (fatty) bone marrow which changes yellow with age
  47. gelatinous bone marrow
    bone marrow tissue with senility
  48. cortex
    the bone tissue btwn the endosteum and periosteum in most areas of most bones which is compact bone. penetrated by neurovascular structures in several locations
  49. nutrient foramina and nutrient canals
    nutrient foramen are external openings in the cortex of the bone, the rest of the passageway is called the nutrient canal. They contain nerves and vessels which supply the medullary tissue AND small branches from them form the neurovascular components within the central canals of the osteons
  50. articular cartilage
    found in freely moving (synovial) joints of the body, a specialized type of hyaline cartilage
  51. bones of each superior limb include:
    34 total: 2 flat bones (clavicle, scapula), 22 long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, 5 metacarpal bones, 14 phalanges), 8 short bones (carpal bones) and two sesamoid bones (base of thumb)
  52. sternoclavicular joint
    the only point btwn the bones of the superior limb and the axial skeleton
  53. pectoral girdle
    the incomplete ring of skeletal components formed by the two scapulae, two clavicles, and the intervening manubrium of the sternum. supports the free parts of the superior limbs and provides extensive attachments for muscles which attach to the limb to the trunk
  54. clavicle
    most frequently fractured bone in the body, classified as flat bone and resembles a long bone. consists of central body, sternal extremity, acromial extremity and conoid tubercle
  55. scapula
    triangularly-shaped bone with three named borders (superior, medial, and lateral), three angles (superior, inferior and lateral) , and two surfaces (anterior and posterior)
  56. humerus
    largest bone in the superior limb, forms the skeleton within the brachium
  57. body of the humerus
    diaphysis
  58. bones of the inferior limb
    33 bones form the inferior limb; one flat bone (os coxae), 22 long bones (femur bone, tibia, fibula, five metatarsal bones, 14 phalanges), 7 short bones (tarsal bones) and 3 sesamoid bones
  59. pelvic girdle
    formed by the two ossa coxae and the bony sacrum. supports the free parts of the inferior limbs and is a site of origin for muscles which act on the limb. Passageway through the pelvic girdle is commonly called the "pelvic canal"
  60. "DAMNIT'
    degenerative, anomalous, metabolic, neoplastic, infectious, and traumatic... which are the six major etiological categories of disease
  61. osteoporosis
    degenerative disorder, excessive skeletal demineralization, major problem among the elderly
  62. anomalies of the skeletal system
    (anomalous for A in DAMNIT) include complete failure of certain bones to develop and abnormal sizes, positions, and shapes of skeletal components
  63. metabolic disorders of the skeletal system include
    nutritional and homonal
  64. osteomalacia
    a metabolic disorder in adults, deficiency in vit D which causes demineralization
  65. appendicular skeleton
    that portion of the skeleton associated with the limbs. Includes the clavicles, scapulae, ossa coxae, and all of the bones in the free parts of the limbs
  66. articular cartilage
    the hyaline cartilage that covers those load bearing surfaces of bones that are involved in synovial joints.
  67. axial skeleton
    the sternum and ribs, and the bones of the vertebral column and head.  All these bones are flat or irregular in shape
  68. flat bones
    those bones that are obviously flattened in one dimension (sternum, ribs, scapulae, clavicles, ossa coxae, and many bones of the skull)
  69. hydroxyapatite
    the principal inorganic component of bone tissue, complex calcium phosphate salt, primary mineral in enamel, cementum, and dentin of teeth
  70. irregular bones
    the vertebrae and several bones of the head which have jutting processes. Exact #'s of irregular and flat bones typically not states because some bones have parts that are flat and other portions are irregular
  71. long bones
    88 long bones; each superior limb (humerus, radius, ulna, 5 metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges) and each inferior limb (femur bone, tibia, fibula, five metatersal bones, and 14 phalanges)
  72. medullary cavity
    the space within a bone that contains bone marrow tissue, adipose tissue, and blood.  The connective tissue proper that lines the medullary cavity is called endosteum
  73. osseous lacunae
    the tiny spaces within bone tissue that contain osteocytes. Osteocytes in neighboring lacunae communicate physically and metabolically by extending cytoplasmic processes through tiny passageways called osseous canaliculi
  74. Osseous lamella
    a layer of mineralized osteoid. Those parellel and adjacent to the periosteum and endosteum are called external and internal circumferential lamellae.  Those in the intervening compact bone are called concentric (osteonal) and interstitial lamellae
  75. osteoid
    the non-cellular organic portion of bone tissue. manufactured by osteoblasts and consists of collagenous fibers embedded in a protein/polysaccharide ground substance
  76. periosteum
    the dense, irregular connective tissue proper that forms the outer encasement of the bones.  covers most external surfaces
  77. short bones
    the carpal and tarsal bones. 30 total, 8 in each wrist and 7 in each ankle
  78. spongy (trabecular) bone tissue
    bone tissue formed of small spicules between intervening region of bone marrow tissue.  found within the ends of long bones and also called "cancellous" bone tissue

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