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1. Which of these characteristics is exclusive to the endocrine system when compared with the nervous system?
- a. relies on release of chemical that bind to specific receptors
- b. relies primarily on negative feedback mechanisms
- c. uses epinephrine and norepinephrine as chemical messengers
- d. effective in coordinating cell, tissue, and organ activities on a sustained, long-term basis
2. What is one of the endocrine functions of the hypothalamus?
- a. It secretes regulatory hormones that influence endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
- b. It has autonomic centers that exert direct neural control over endocrine cells of the adrenal cortex.
- c. Hypothalamic neurons synthesize hormones like ADH that increase the elimination of water from the body.
- d. All of the above are correct.
3. What statement below is true of peptide hormones?
- a. They are derivatives of arachidonic acid.
- b. They are synthesized by ribosomes and are lipophilic.
- c. They are also called biogenic amines and are synthesized from tyrosine.
- d. They are chains of amino acids such as glycoproteins, small proteins, or polypeptides.
4. If levels of calcium are low in the blood, what hormone would restore calcium to homeostasis?
- a. calcitonin
- b. parathyroid hormone
- c. insulin
- d. glucagon
5. Which of the following indirect-acting hormones activates adenylate cyclase and will produce a change in cellular activity by way of cAMP?
- a. norepinephrine (alpha 1 receptors)
- b. oxytocin
- c. TSH
- d. epinephrine (alpha 2 receptors)
6. The vascular arrangement of the hypophyseal portal system:
- a. provides efficient means of ensuring that all hypothalamic hormones will reach target cells in the adenohypophysis before being diluted in general circulation.
- b. ensures that all hormones destined for the pituitary are diluted in general circulation before entering the adenohypophysis.
- c. ensures that RH from the hypothalamus synthesizes the correct amount of a specific hormone.
- d. None of the above is correct.
7. What is the role of FSH in males?
- a. It stimulates production of sex hormones.
- b. It stimulates the breakdown of stored triglycerides by adipocytes.
- c. It stimulates nurse cells, which then promote the maturation of sperm.
- d. It stimulates smooth muscle contraction in the ductus deferens and prostate gland.
8. Why do high levels of cortisol, a steroid hormone from the adrenal cortex, cause a decrease in the pituitary secretion of ACTH?
- a. High levels of cortisol stimulate other steroid hormones to be released.
- b. The cortisol acts synergistically with other hormones.
- c. ACTH participates in a negative feedback loop with cortisol.
- d. CRH from the hypothalamus inhibits ACTH release.
9. Which pancreatic cell type is paired with the hormone it produces?
- a. alpha cells / pancreatic polypeptide
- b. F cells / a hormone identical to growth hormone�inhibiting hormone
- c. beta cells / insulin d
- d. delta cells / glucagon
10. Which statement is a function of insulin?
- a. It will facilitate the transport and utilization of glucose by cells.
- b. It promotes protein synthesis.
- c. It will decrease storage of glucagon in the cell.
- d. Both A and B are functions of insulin.
11. Which of the following is an effect of glucagon?
- a. accelerated glucose uptake and utilization
- b. breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue
- c. stimulation of amino acid absorption and protein synthesis
- d. stimulation of glycogen formation
12. Cells in the ___ are insulin independent, which means that they can ____.
- a. brain, kidneys, and digestive tract; absorb glucose without insulin stimulation
- b. liver; produce glucose
- c. pancreas and adrenal cortex; produce insulin
- d. adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla; function without insulin
13. Why are diabetics continuously thirsty and why do they frequently urinate?
- a. Less water is reclaimed by osmosis in the kidneys.
- b. Water loss reduces blood volume, promoting secretion of ADH.
- c. Glucose is lost in the urine, which increases blood volume.
- d. A and B are correct.
14. Increased amounts of sunlight inhibit the production of which hormone?
- a. prolactin
- b. melanocyte-stimulating hormone
- c. aldosterone
- d. melatonin
15. Which of the following would result from the overproduction of glucocorticoids?
- a. Graves disease
- b. Addison�s disease
- c. diabetes mellitus
- d. Cushing�s disease
16. Deficiencies of which hormones impede normal skeletal development?
- a. GH, thyroid hormone, PTH, and reproductive hormones
- b. prolactin, FSH, LH, GH
- c. thyroid hormone, melatonin, PTH, calcitonin
- d. GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH
17. What is the effect of renin secretion by the kidneys?
- a. stimulates Ca2+ and PO4� absorption along the digestive tract
- b. stimulates the production of red blood cells by bone marrow
- c. converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
- d. inhibits secretion of ADH and aldosterone
18. All of the following EXCEPT ___ occur during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
- a. conservation of glucose for neural tissues
- b. mobilization of remaining lipid and protein reserves
- c. conservation of Na+ and loss of K+ and H+
- d. increased mental alertness and increased blood pressure
19. Which of the following is NOT an effect of thyroid hormones on major organ systems?
- a. increased heart rate and force of contraction
- b. increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation
- c. decreased turnover of minerals in bone
- d. stimulation of red blood cell formation
20. The removal of the parathyroid glands results in a decrease in the blood concentration of which important mineral?
- a. calcium ions
- b. phosphate ions
- c. sodium ions
- d. potassium ions
21. Failure of the zona glomerulosa to secrete aldosterone would result in ________.
- a. decreased formation and secretion of calcitriol
- b. enhanced reabsorption of Ca2+ at the kidneys
- c. loss of Na+, K+ retention, and decreased reabsorption of water at the kidneys
- d. none of the above
22. Secretion of cortisol by the zona fasciculata ____ in the liver and has a(n) _____ effect on CRH in the hypothalamus.
- a. decreases glucose synthesis; stimulatory
- b. increases glucose synthesis; inhibitory
- c. increases androgen production; antagonistic
- d. decreases glycogen synthesis; synergistic
23. Melatonin is well known for its role in regulating circadian rhythm. What are two other functions of melatonin?
- a. promotes muscle mass and supports libido in females
- b. testicular feminization and gynecomastia in males
- c. inhibiting reproductive functions and protecting CNS neurons from free radicals
- d. promoting early puberty and increasing rates of oxygen consumption
24. In what ways are hormonal effects of E and NE from the adrenal medulla similar to the effects of glucocorticoids from the zona fasciculata?
- a. Hormones from both are under the ultimate control of the sympathetic nervous system.
- b. Both increase cardiac activity and blood pressure.
- c. Both are stimulated by angiotensin II.
- d. Both increase blood glucose levels and promote the breakdown of stored fats into fatty acids.