Endocrine System - 1.txt

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Endocrine System - 1.txt
2013-03-28 00:53:35
Endocrine system hormones

Endocrine System
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  1. 1. Which of these characteristics is exclusive to the endocrine system when compared with the nervous system?
    • a. relies on release of chemical that bind to specific receptors
    • b. relies primarily on negative feedback mechanisms
    • c. uses epinephrine and norepinephrine as chemical messengers
    • d. effective in coordinating cell, tissue, and organ activities on a sustained, long-term basis
  2. 2. What is one of the endocrine functions of the hypothalamus?
    • a. It secretes regulatory hormones that influence endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
    • b. It has autonomic centers that exert direct neural control over endocrine cells of the adrenal cortex.
    • c. Hypothalamic neurons synthesize hormones like ADH that increase the elimination of water from the body.
    • d. All of the above are correct.
  3. 3. What statement below is true of peptide hormones?
    • a. They are derivatives of arachidonic acid.
    • b. They are synthesized by ribosomes and are lipophilic.
    • c. They are also called biogenic amines and are synthesized from tyrosine.
    • d. They are chains of amino acids such as glycoproteins, small proteins, or polypeptides.
  4. 4. If levels of calcium are low in the blood, what hormone would restore calcium to homeostasis?
    • a. calcitonin
    • b. parathyroid hormone
    • c. insulin
    • d. glucagon
  5. 5. Which of the following indirect-acting hormones activates adenylate cyclase and will produce a change in cellular activity by way of cAMP?
    • a. norepinephrine (alpha 1 receptors)
    • b. oxytocin
    • c. TSH
    • d. epinephrine (alpha 2 receptors)
  6. 6. The vascular arrangement of the hypophyseal portal system:
    • a. provides efficient means of ensuring that all hypothalamic hormones will reach target cells in the adenohypophysis before being diluted in general circulation.
    • b. ensures that all hormones destined for the pituitary are diluted in general circulation before entering the adenohypophysis.
    • c. ensures that RH from the hypothalamus synthesizes the correct amount of a specific hormone.
    • d. None of the above is correct.
  7. 7. What is the role of FSH in males?
    • a. It stimulates production of sex hormones.
    • b. It stimulates the breakdown of stored triglycerides by adipocytes.
    • c. It stimulates nurse cells, which then promote the maturation of sperm.
    • d. It stimulates smooth muscle contraction in the ductus deferens and prostate gland.
  8. 8. Why do high levels of cortisol, a steroid hormone from the adrenal cortex, cause a decrease in the pituitary secretion of ACTH?
    • a. High levels of cortisol stimulate other steroid hormones to be released.
    • b. The cortisol acts synergistically with other hormones.
    • c. ACTH participates in a negative feedback loop with cortisol.
    • d. CRH from the hypothalamus inhibits ACTH release.
  9. 9. Which pancreatic cell type is paired with the hormone it produces?
    • a. alpha cells / pancreatic polypeptide
    • b. F cells / a hormone identical to growth hormone�inhibiting hormone
    • c. beta cells / insulin d
    • d. delta cells / glucagon
  10. 10. Which statement is a function of insulin?
    • a. It will facilitate the transport and utilization of glucose by cells.
    • b. It promotes protein synthesis.
    • c. It will decrease storage of glucagon in the cell.
    • d. Both A and B are functions of insulin.
  11. 11. Which of the following is an effect of glucagon?
    • a. accelerated glucose uptake and utilization
    • b. breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue
    • c. stimulation of amino acid absorption and protein synthesis
    • d. stimulation of glycogen formation
  12. 12. Cells in the ___ are insulin independent, which means that they can ____.
    • a. brain, kidneys, and digestive tract; absorb glucose without insulin stimulation
    • b. liver; produce glucose
    • c. pancreas and adrenal cortex; produce insulin
    • d. adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla; function without insulin
  13. 13. Why are diabetics continuously thirsty and why do they frequently urinate?
    • a. Less water is reclaimed by osmosis in the kidneys.
    • b. Water loss reduces blood volume, promoting secretion of ADH.
    • c. Glucose is lost in the urine, which increases blood volume.
    • d. A and B are correct.
  14. 14. Increased amounts of sunlight inhibit the production of which hormone?
    • a. prolactin
    • b. melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    • c. aldosterone
    • d. melatonin
  15. 15. Which of the following would result from the overproduction of glucocorticoids?
    • a. Graves disease
    • b. Addison�s disease
    • c. diabetes mellitus
    • d. Cushing�s disease
  16. 16. Deficiencies of which hormones impede normal skeletal development?
    • a. GH, thyroid hormone, PTH, and reproductive hormones
    • b. prolactin, FSH, LH, GH
    • c. thyroid hormone, melatonin, PTH, calcitonin
    • d. GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH
  17. 17. What is the effect of renin secretion by the kidneys?
    • a. stimulates Ca2+ and PO4� absorption along the digestive tract
    • b. stimulates the production of red blood cells by bone marrow
    • c. converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
    • d. inhibits secretion of ADH and aldosterone
  18. 18. All of the following EXCEPT ___ occur during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
    • a. conservation of glucose for neural tissues
    • b. mobilization of remaining lipid and protein reserves
    • c. conservation of Na+ and loss of K+ and H+
    • d. increased mental alertness and increased blood pressure
  19. 19. Which of the following is NOT an effect of thyroid hormones on major organ systems?
    • a. increased heart rate and force of contraction
    • b. increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation
    • c. decreased turnover of minerals in bone
    • d. stimulation of red blood cell formation
  20. 20. The removal of the parathyroid glands results in a decrease in the blood concentration of which important mineral?
    • a. calcium ions
    • b. phosphate ions
    • c. sodium ions
    • d. potassium ions
  21. 21. Failure of the zona glomerulosa to secrete aldosterone would result in ________.
    • a. decreased formation and secretion of calcitriol
    • b. enhanced reabsorption of Ca2+ at the kidneys
    • c. loss of Na+, K+ retention, and decreased reabsorption of water at the kidneys
    • d. none of the above
  22. 22. Secretion of cortisol by the zona fasciculata ____ in the liver and has a(n) _____ effect on CRH in the hypothalamus.
    • a. decreases glucose synthesis; stimulatory
    • b. increases glucose synthesis; inhibitory
    • c. increases androgen production; antagonistic
    • d. decreases glycogen synthesis; synergistic
  23. 23. Melatonin is well known for its role in regulating circadian rhythm. What are two other functions of melatonin?
    • a. promotes muscle mass and supports libido in females
    • b. testicular feminization and gynecomastia in males
    • c. inhibiting reproductive functions and protecting CNS neurons from free radicals
    • d. promoting early puberty and increasing rates of oxygen consumption
  24. 24. In what ways are hormonal effects of E and NE from the adrenal medulla similar to the effects of glucocorticoids from the zona fasciculata?
    • a. Hormones from both are under the ultimate control of the sympathetic nervous system.
    • b. Both increase cardiac activity and blood pressure.
    • c. Both are stimulated by angiotensin II.
    • d. Both increase blood glucose levels and promote the breakdown of stored fats into fatty acids.