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Describe the Infancy stage (0-1) of development.
Basic trust v Mistrust
Appreciation of interdependence. Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care & affection. A lack of this leads to mistrust.
- Virtue/Resolution: HopeImportant events: Feeding
Describe the Early Childhood (1-3 yrs) stage of development.
Autonomy v Shame
Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills & a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame & doubt.
- Virture/Resolution: Will
- Important events: Toilet Training
Describe the Preschool Age (3-6 yrs) of development.
Initiative v Guilt
Children need to begin asserting control over & power over the enviornment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
- Virture/Resolution: Purpose
- Important events: Exploration
Describe the School Age (6-12 yrs) stage of development.
Industry v Inferiority
Children need to cope with new social & academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
- Resolution: Competence
- Important events: School
Describe the Adolescence (12-19 yrs) stage of development.
Identity v Confusion
Teens need to develop a sense of self & personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion & a weak sense of self.
- Resolution: Fidelity
- Important events: Social Relationships
Describe the Young Adulthood (19-30 yrs) stage of development.
Intimacy v Isolation
Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships w/other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness in the world.
- Resolution: Love
- Important events: Relationships
Describe Middle Adulthood (30-65 yrs) stage of development.
Generativity v Stagnation
Adults need to create or nuture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Achieve life goals, consider future generations. Success leads to feelings of usefulness & accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
- Resolution: Care
- Important events: Work and Parenthood
Describe Maturity/Old Age (65+ yrs) stage of development.
Ego Integrity v Despair
Older adults need to look back on life & feel a sense of fulfillment. Life review with meaning both positive & negatives, positive self worth.
- Resolution: Wisdom
- Important events: Reflection on life
Do the stages need to be mastered before moving to the next?
No, a healthily developing human should pass through each stage. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future.