LAT1

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  1. 1. What is in vitro research?
    1. Research done outside a living animal, i.e. in a test tube
  2. 2. What is in vivo research?
    2. Research using living animals
  3. 3. What is the difference between applied research and basic research?
    3. In applied research, the results are actually used in a clinical setting. For example the results of an applied study may define the specific drug dose to be used to treat a patient with a certain disease. In a basic study however, the investigator is simply performing the study in order to determine how something works. The results may never actually be "used".
  4. 4. What is the difference between a control group and an experimental group?
    4. The experimental group is the one that is subjected to all of the manipulations that are being studied. A control group is not subjected to all the manipulations and is used as a comparison for the results of the experimental group.
  5. 5. Prior to conducting an experiment, an investigator defines the hypothesis. What is the hypothesis?
    5. The hypothesis is a statement of what the investigator thinks the outcome of the study will be, what he/she thinks is going to happen.
  6. 6. What are examples of ways that an animal technician can introduce unintended variables into a study?
    6. By not giving an animal the proper food, by not cleaning the cages often enough or thoroughly enough, by not reporting health concerns observed in the animals, by not reporting significant temperature changes in the animal room, by feeding the animals outdated food, etc.
  7. 7. What does P.I. stand for?
    7. Principal Investigator
  8. 8. What are some examples of the types of information that an investigator must provide in an animal research protocol to be submitted to the IACUC? And what does IACUC stand for anyway?
    8. The names and qualifications of the people involved in the study, an explanation of the significance of the study, a description of exactly what will be done to the animals as part of the study, an explanation of how many animals will be required, a description of any adverse effects the study may have on the animals and what will be done to minimize those effects, and a description of what will be done with the animals at the end of the study. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
  9. 9. How often is the IACUC required to review an institution's animal care and use program and inspect the animal facilities?
    9. Once every six months
  10. 10. What is the name of the document that a P.I. must complete and have approved before he/she can start a project that uses animals?
    10. Animal Protocol
  11. 11. Who has to comply with the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals?
    11. Any facility that receives grant money from the federal government to perform studies that involve live vertebrate animals
  12. 12. What are the three primary responsibilities of the IACUC as outlined in the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals? Who does the policy require be on the committee? Who appoints the IACUC?
    12. (1) Review an animal facilities program for animal care and use and inspect the animal facilities, (2) review all animal protocols at least once each year, (3) review any concerns anyone may have relating to animal use at the facility. The Policy requires a veterinarian, a member of community, a non-scientist from the institution and a scientist also from the institution using animals in research. The institutional official (IO) appoints the IACUC.
  13. 13. Research institutions that are required to comply with the PHS Policy must provide the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) with a signed agreement that outlines how the institution complies with all aspects of the Policy. What is that agreement called
    13. The Letter of Assurance
  14. 14. Who has to comply with the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals?
    14. Any facility that receives grant money from the federal government to perform studies that involve live vertebrate animals
  15. 15. Who has to comply with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal Welfare Act regulations and when were those regulations originally enacted? Specifically which animals do these regulations apply to? Does it cover wild rats and mice?
    15. Facilities who use any mammal in research with the exception of laboratory rats, laboratory mice, and livestock used in agricultural studies (studies which are intended to improve an animal's ability to provide food or fiber such as a study with pigs that is intended to learn how to make them grow faster); the regulations were enacted in 1966; it does cover wild rats and mice
  16. 16. Which organization is responsible for ensuring compliance with the Animal Welfare Act?
    16. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  17. 17. How often does USDA inspect research facilities?
    17. Once a year
  18. 18. Which regulatory organization registers institutions using experimental animals?
    18. USDA
  19. 19. Who has to comply with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Good Laboratory Practices regulations? For how long do records related to a GLP study need to be maintained?
    19.Facilities who use animals to perform safety studies of food additives, drugs, or medical devices intended for humans. Records for GLP studies need to be maintained for 5 years following completion of the study and submission of the results to the FDA.
  20. 20. What regulatory agencies regulate how big cages used to house research animals must be?
    20. ILAR and USDA
  21. 21. What does AAALAC stand for and what do they do? Is accreditation mandatory or voluntary? What is the primary document AAALAC uses when evaluating an animal facility? Once accredited, how often does AAALAC reevaluate an institution?
    21. Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care
  22. 22. What does F.O.I.A. stand for?
    22. Freedom of Information Act
  23. 23. Which organization regularly publishes a report evaluating the various methods of euthanizing animals?
    23. American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)
  24. 24. Is it true that the USDA, as described in the Animal Welfare Act, requires a health certificate to accompany shipments of the animals they regulate?
    24. Yes
  25. 25. How long after completion of a project does OLAW require that the IACUC retain records such as the animal use protocol?
    25. Three years
  26. 26. Which agency has guidelines for the use of biohazardous pathogens?
    26. Center for Disease Control (CDC)
  27. 27. What regulatory agency has the most regulations specific to transportation?
    27. USDA
  28. 28. What organization wrote the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals?
    28. Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR)
  29. 29. What organization has a program for certifying laboratory animal technicians?
    29. American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS)
  30. 30. Which committee requires a member of the community be on it so that community input can be obtained?
    30. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
  31. 31. How often should every research animal be checked?
    31. At least once everyday, seven days a week
  32. 32. Who is the most important person in making sure animals in a research facility are OK?
    32. The animal care technicians
  33. 33. What does AALAS stand for and who are they?
    33. American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; they are an association of people and institutions concerned with the production, care and study of laboratory animals.
  34. 34. Define what each of the following acronyms stand for and describe what each organization is or does NABRB, ASLAP, ACLAM, PETA, NIH
    34. NABRB - National Association for   Biomedical Reaserch, ASLAP - American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners, ACLAM - American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, PETA - People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, NIH - National Institute of Health
  35. 35. Why can't the use of cell or tissue culture replace the use of animals in research?
    35. Two reasons. First, cells come from animals so some animals must be used as the source of those cells. Second, studies using cells determines just how those cells will respond to the experiment, not a whole animal
  36. 36. Why can't the use of mathematical or computer models replace the use of animals in research?
    36. Because we don't know all there is to know about any animal and therefore can't create a mathematical or computer model that could tell us all that using a living animal can.
  37. 37. What are the three R's?
    37. Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement
  38. 38. List as many reasons as you can think of why it is good to have Standard Operating Procedures (SOP's).
    38. So that all procedures are done in a uniform and consistent way which will minimize the stress of the animals and ensure that quality care be provided
  39. 39. What does IACUC stand for and who must be on it?
    39. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee; a veterinarian, a scientist using animals in research, a non-scientist from the facility and a member of the public
  40. 40. Why is it important to maintain records of all that occurs in an animal facility?
    40. So that you have clear documentation of all activities that have occurred at the facility; these records then provide evidence for regulatory agencies, granting agencies and if necessary, the media
  41. 41. What information should be contained on a cage card?
    41. The species, strain or stock of the animal, the name and location of the principal investigator, pertinent dates, the animal protocol number, the source of the animal
  42. 42. With the exception of official USDA dog and cat tags, how long do the various types of required records need to be maintained?
    42. Three years after the record has expired (i.e. the records related to each dog or cat need to be maintained for three years after a dog or cat has been euthanized or adopted out)
  43. 43. How long do official USDA dog and cat tags need to be maintained?
    43. Two years after the dog has been either adopted out or euthanized
  44. 44. When USDA does an inspection of an animal facility, how much notice must provide before arriving?
    44. Absolutely none, they just show up
  45. 45. According to PHS, how long do records such as animal protocols need to be maintained after a project is completed?
    45. Three years
  46. 46. What does per' diem mean?
    46. The amount of money it costs to maintain each animal each day (the cost per animal per day)
  47. 47. What is a cost center?
    47. A category of costs associated with maintaining animals (i.e. labor, medical supplies, cleaning supplies, feed, bedding, etc.)
  48. 48. What does DEA stand for and what, in the laboratory animal setting, do they regulate?
    48. DEA stands for the Drug Enforcement Agency and they regulate the storage and use of controlled substances
  49. 49. Who wrote the three R's?
    49. Russell and Birch wrote the three R's
  50. 50. How far in advance of a site visit is USDA required to provide notification of the visit to a facility?
    50. USDA is not required to provide any advance notification.
  51. 51. Which of the three R's is being addressed by using fewer animals in an experiment?
    51. Reduction
  52. 52. Which of the three R's is being addressed by working out the kinks of a surgical procedure by practicing on cadavers first?
    52. Refinement
  53. 53. Which of the three R's is being addressed by using in vitro technique in place of animals?
    53. Replacement
  54. 54. There are two organizations with the acronym NRC, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the National Research Council. Which one is ILAR a part of? What is the role of the other one?
    54. ILAR is a part of the National Research Council; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates the use of radioactive substances
  55. 55. If a disease occurs spontaneously in an animal, would that animal be considered a natural or an induced animal model for the study of that disease?
    55. Natural
  56. 56. What does FOIA stand for? To whom does the FOIA apply?
    56. FOIA stands for the Freedom of Information Act. That act enables any member of the public to request copies of any records from any public institution. It doesn't apply to private companies.
  57. 57. What does NRC stand for and what does that organization do?
    57. NRC stands for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and they regulate the use of radioisotopes and radiation.
  58. 58. What does CMAR stand for and what is it?
    58. CMAR stands for Certified Manager of Animal Resources. It
  59. 59. What are two organizations that require that you be a veterinarian to be a member?
    59. ACLAM and ASLAP is a certification offered to animal resource managers by AALAS.
  60. 60. What does GLP stand for?
    60. Good Laboratory Practices
  61. 61. With respect to the three "R's", which of them would be addressed when an investigator uses a new surgical technique that causes less trauma to an animal and will therefore require a shorter recovery time for the animal?
    61. Refinement
  62. 62. With respect to the three R's, which of them would be addressed when after a surgical procedure is performed, a veterinarian gives an animal a new analgesic (pain killer) that lasts 12 hours instead of the previous one which only lasted 8 hours?
    62. Refinement
  63. 63. How many members does the PHS Policy require be on an animal care and use committee?
    63. Five
  64. 64. What is meant by the phrase "Established performance standards"?
    64. thorough descriptions of how tasks should be performed
  65. 65. What should an employee's performance evaluation be based on?
    65. the employee's position description and established performance standards
  66. 66. Which of the following is an element of how a supervisor should assign a duty to an employee?
    66. a thorough explanation of how the task is to be performed, definition of exactly what the expected outcome should be and the approximate time period for completion, follow up after the task has been completed and providing constructive feedback to the employee
  67. 67. If you are assigned a difficult task, how should you approach it?
    67. do it during the time of day when you function the best
  68. 68. If you are an IACUC coordinator responsible for keeping records and buried in a filing cabinet you find an animal protocol that expired 18 months ago, can you throw it away?
    68. No, you still have to keep it for 18 more months

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