LAT2

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  1. 1. A liter is a measurement of what, distance, weight or volume?
    1. volume
  2. 2. A meter is a measurement of what, distance, weight or volume?
    2. Distance
  3. 3. A gram is a measurement of what, distance, weight or volume?
    3. Weight (or really mass)
  4. 4. How many milliliters are there in 10 cc's?
    4. One milliliter equals one cc so 10 milliliters equals 10 cc's
  5. 5. How many microliters are there in a liter?
    5. Micro means one one-millionth so there are a million microliters in a liter
  6. 6. How many grams does 10 cc's of water weigh?
    6. One cc of water weighs one gram so 10 cc's of water weighs 10 grams
  7. 7. How many grams are in a kilogram?
    7. Kilo means thousand so there are a thousand grams in a kilogram
  8. 8. How many pounds are in a kilogram? How many grams are in a pound?
    8. One kilogram is 2.2 pounds. There are 454 grams in a pound.
  9. 9. How many centimeters are in an inch?
    9. 2.54 centimeters per inch
  10. 10. What is normal room temperature in degrees Fahrenheit? How about in degree Celsius? How do you convert a temperature from Celsius to Farenheit?
    10. Normal room temperature is 68-72oF which is the same as 20-22.2oC. To convert from Celsius to Farenheit, use this equation:
  11. 9/5oC + 32 = oF
  12. This means that if you know the degrees Celcius, you multiply it by 9/5 (which is almost two), then add 32 to that number and that gives you the number of degrees Farenheit it would be equal to.
  13. 11. Which atom does C stand for?
    11. Carbon
  14. 12. Which atom does O stand for?
    12. Oxygen
  15. 13. Which atom does H stand for?
    13. Hydrogen
  16. 14. What is the common name of H2O?
    14. Water
  17. 15. What is the common name of NaCl? ?
    15. Sodium chloride (table salt)
  18. 16. What are the three states of matter?
    16. solid, liquid, gas
  19. 17. Can viruses reproduce on their own or do they need to use the cell from a different organism to do it?
    17. Viruses need a cell from a different organism in order to multiply. They attach to the cell and inject their genetic material into it. The cell then makes copies of the viruses genetic material and convert those copies into viruses
  20. 18. What are the four main components of cells?
    18. The outer cell wall (also called plasma membrane), the nucleus (which is the same thing as the yolk of an egg), the cytoplasm (which is the same thing as the white of an egg) and the organelles (which are the little organs inside the cell that keep it alive
  21. 19. What are the four different types of tissues and what is at least one characteristic of each?
    19. Epithelial tissue which lines the inside and outside of the body, connective tissue which binds and supports other tissues, muscle tissue which is capable of contraction and nerve tissue which is capable of carrying message throughout the body
  22. 20. What is the midline of animal?
    20. An imaginary axis down the middle of an animal
  23. 21. Where would the dorsal surface of an animal be? How about the ventral surface?
    21. The dorsal surface is the back of the animal (think dorsal fin of a shark) and the ventral surface is the abdominal or underside of an animal
  24. 22. What is the most distal part of your arm? How about the most proximal part?
    22. The distal part of an appendage is the part furthest from where it attaches to the body so it would be the fingertips. The most proximal part of an appendage is the part closest to where it attaches to the body so it would be the shoulder
  25. 23. Is a cut along the midline of an animal called a sagittal cut or a cross-sectional cut?
    23. A cut along the midline is called sagittal; a cut across the midline is called cross-sectional
  26. 24. Which term, palmar or plantar, refers to the hind foot?
    24. Plantar refers to the pad of the hind foot while palmar refers to the pad of the front foot
  27. 25. What is the anatomical term for the front of an animal? How about the rear?
    25. The front of an animal is referred to as the anterior surface and the rear is referred to as the posterior
  28. 26. What is the anatomical term for "toward the head" of an animal? How about the term for "toward the tail"?
    26. Cranial is toward the head and caudal is toward the tail
  29. 27. If an x-ray image of an animal is taken from above the animal, looking down, is that image a superior or inferior view?
    27. From above would be superior, from below is inferior
  30. 28. What are the main functions of the cardiovascular (circulatory) system? What are the main components of that system?
    28. The main functions of the cardiovascular system are (1) supply of oxygen and nutrients, (2) removal of carbon dioxide and waste and (3) transport of hormones from the site of production to the site of action
  31. 29. How many chambers does the heart of mammals have? When the left ventricle of the heart contracts, where does the blood that was inside it go?
    29. The heart of mammals has four chambers. When the left ventricle contracts, blood goes out the aorta to the body
  32. 30. What does hepatectomy mean?
    30. Hepat means liver and ectomy means the cut out so hepatectomy means to cut out (surgically remove) the liver
  33. 31. If a compound is said to be pyrogenic, what does that mean it does?
    31. Pyro means heat or fever and genic means to cause so something that is pyrogenic causes a fever
  34. 32. If an animal is experiencing bradycardia, what does that mean?
    32. Brady means slow and cardio means heart so an animal experiencing bradycardia has a slow heart rate
  35. 33. What does the term enteritis mean?
    33. Entero means intestine and itis means inflammation so enteritis means inflammation of the intestine
  36. 34. Which system is the aorta a part of?
    34. The aorta is part of the circulatory system
  37. 35. Which vessel (arteries, veins, or capillaries) carry blood away from the heart?
    35. Arteries carry blood away from the heart
  38. 36. Which vessel (arteries, veins, or capillaries) carry blood back to the heart?
    36. Veins carry blood back to the heart
  39. 37. Which vessel (arteries, veins, or capillaries) are the tiny ones that connect arteries to veins and carry blood to the tissues?
    37. Capillaries connect arteries and veins and carry blood to the tissues
  40. 38. What percent of blood is simply plasma and what is plasma mostly made up of?
    38. Roughly 55% of blood is plasma and plasma is mostly made up of water
  41. 39. What are the names of the three types of blood cells found in animals? Which of the three are responsible for clotting? Which of the three have a role in fighting off infection?
    39. The three types of cells are erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) and platelets (thrombocytes)
  42. 40. What mineral is found in the center of hemoglobin and is important for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide?
    40. Iron
  43. 41. What are the names of the two types of white blood cells? Give two examples of each type.
    41. The two types of white blood cells are called granulocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils) and lymphoid cells (lymphocytes and monocytes)
  44. 42. Be sure to know the path of blood flow through the heart.
    42. After circulating throughout the body, blood enters the heart at the right atrium; it then moves through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle; it then moves through the pulmonary artery to the lungs; in then goes through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium; it then goes from the left atrium, through the mitral valve to the left ventricle and finally, out the aorta to the body
  45. 43. Is it epicardium or endocardium that lines the inner chambers of the heart?
    43. Endocardium lines the inside of the heart, epicardium lines the outside of the heart
  46. 44. When you have your blood pressure taken, it is read as the systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure. What do the terms systolic and diastolic mean?
    44. Systolic pressure is the amount of pressure in your circulatory system when the ventricles of your heart are contracting and blood is being forced out your heart to your body (and lungs) and the diastolic pressure is the pressure in your circulatory system when blood is moving from the atria to the ventricles
  47. 45. What are the main functions or characteristics of the lymphatic system?
    45. To control the amount of fluid (which is mostly water) in our tissues
  48. 46. What is the name of the fluid that the lymphatic system carries and what is that fluid mostly made up of?
    46. The fluid is called lymph and it is made mostly of water
  49. 47. What do phagocytes do?
    47. Phagocytes are cells that engulf and digest (eat) other cells; phagocytes eat bacterial cells that are not wanted in the body
  50. 48. Does the lymphatic system ultimately dump into the circulatory system? If so, where in the circulatory system does this occur?
    48. The lymphatic system does dump into the circulatory system at the right atrium
  51. 49. What are the main functions of the muscular system?
    49. Protection of organs, movement of the body, thermoregulation
  52. 50. In what way is thermoregulation a function of the muscular system?
    50. In many animals, goose bumps (caused by the contraction of tiny muscles around each hair or feather shaft) help warm the animal; also, shivering help generate heat
  53. 51. Where in an animal would you expect to find smooth muscle?
    51. Smooth muscle lines the digestive system and circulatory system
  54. 52. Where in an animal would you expect to find skeletal muscle? Is skeletal muscle also called striated muscle?
    52. Skeletal muscle is the muscle that controls movement of the body; yes, it is also called striated muscle
  55. 53. Where in an animal would you expect to find cardiac muscle?
    53. Cardiac muscle is the type of muscle the heart is made of
  56. 54. What is the name of the muscle that controls breathing?
    54. The diaphragm is the muscle that controls breathing
  57. 55. What are the main functions of the respiratory system?
    55. The functions of the respiratory system are exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen, thermoregulation, and regulation of water loss.
  58. 56. Relative to the muscular system, what is the difference between adduction and abduction?
    56. Adduction is when a muscle moves a limb toward the body and abduction is when a muscle moves a limb away from the body
  59. 57. Arrange the following terms into the proper order that an oxygen molecule would encounter them as the molecule was moving from the nose to the lungs: pharynx, alveoli, bronchi, trachea. Where within the respiratory system does gas exchange take place?
    57. Pharynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli; gas exchange takes place in the alveoli
  60. 58. What is the name of the tube that connects the throat with the lungs, also called the windpipe?
    58. Trachea
  61. 59. Is it the visceral pleura or the parietal pleura that lines the outside of the lungs?
    59. The visceral pleura lines the outside of the lungs and the parietal pleura lines the inside of the chest cavity
  62. 60. Is it true that the lungs in a bird are called the parabronchi?
    60. Yes
  63. 61. When the diaphragm contracts, does air go into the lungs or out of the lungs?
    61. When the diaphragm contracts, air goes into the lungs
  64. 62. What are the main functions of the skeletal system?
    62. The main functions of the skeletal system are protection of internal organs, production of blood cells, support of the body and storage of minerals like calcium
  65. 63. What is the name of the main shaft of a long bone? How about the enlarged ends of such a bone where growth occurs in young animals?
    63. The main shaft of a long bone is called the diaphysis, the enlarged ends where growth occurs are called the epiphysis
  66. 64. Which term, abduction or adduction, means movement of a limb toward the midline?
    64. Adduction
  67. 65. What are the main components of the axial skeleton?
    65. The main components of the axial skeleton are the head, the vertebral column (the backbone) and the thoracic cavity (ribcage)
  68. 66. What are the names of the five sections of the vertebral column? Which one comprises the neck? How many neck vertebrae are there in mammals?
    66. The five sections of the vertebral column are the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal; there are seven vertebrae in the neck of mammals
  69. 67. What are the upper and lower jaw bones called?
    67. The upper jaw bone is called the maxilla and the lower jaw bone is called the mandible
  70. 68. What are the names of the three parts of the sternum?
    68. The three parts of the sternum are manubrium (the top part), the xyphoid process (the bottom part) and the central body (the part in the middle)
  71. 69. What are the main components of the appendicular skeleton?
    69. The main components of the appendicular skeleton are the pectoral girdle (shoulders), the forelimbs (arms), the pelvic girdle (the waist) and the hindlimbs (legs)
  72. 70. What is the name of the bones of the wrist?
    70. The bones of the wrist are called the carpals
  73. 71. What is the name of the bones of the fingers and toes?
    71. The bones of the fingers and toes are called the phalanges
  74. 72. What is the name of the bones of the hand? How about the foot? How about the foot? How about the ankle?
    72. The bones of the hand are called the metacarpals; the bones of the foot are called the metatarsals and the bones of the ankle tarsals
  75. 73. Which bone in the arm forms the elbow?
    73. The bone that forms the elbow is the ulna
  76. 74. What organ system does the scapula belong to?
    74. The scapula is the shoulder blade which is part of the skeletal system
  77. 75. In what part of the body would the femur be found?
    75. The femur is the large bone of the upper leg
  78. 76. Which bones make up the pectoral girdle? How about the pelvic girdle?
    76. The pectoral girdle (shoulders) is made up of the scapula (the shoulder blade) and the clavicle (the collar bone); the bones of the pelvic girdle (waist) are the pubis, ilium and ischium
  79. 77. What is the difference between ligaments and tendons?
    77. Ligaments attach bone to bone and tendons attach bone to muscle
  80. 78. Which system is the skin system?
    78. The skin system is the integumentary system
  81. 79. What are the main functions of the integumentary system?
    79. The main functions of the integumentary system are protection (of the interior of the body), thermoregulation (skin insulates the body) and regulation of water loss (skin keeps the body from drying out)
  82. 80. What are the three basic structures of the integumentary system? In which layer, the dermis or the epidermis, would you expect to find nerves, blood vessels, and pigment?
    80. The three basic structures of the integumentary system are the epidermis (the outer layer of skin), the dermis (the layer of tissue under the skin) and the glands (sweat and sebaceous)
  83. 81. What is the main function of the digestive system?
    81. The main function of the digestive system is the breakdown of food into molecules that can be absorbed and used by the body
  84. 82. What are the names and locations of the four types of teeth you have?
    82. The front teeth are the incisors, the fang-like teeth are called the canines, the next teeth are called the premolars and the large teeth in the back of the mouth are called the molars
  85. 83. What is the dental formula of mice and rats?
    83. 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3
  86. 84. As food is moving through the digestive system, which comes first, the large intestine or the small intestine? What is the name of the structure found at the junction of these two parts of the intestine? What are two examples of animals that have large versions of this structure?
    84. The small intestine comes first; the structure at the junction of the small intestine and large intestine is called the cecum; two animals with large cecums are guinea pigs and rabbits
  87. 85. What do you call animals that eat just plants? How about animals that eat just other animals? How about animals that eat both?
    85. Animals that eat plants are called herbivores; animals that eat other animals are called carnivores; animals that eat both are called omnivores
  88. 86. What is the name of the tube that connects the mouth with the stomach?
    86. The tube connecting the mouth and stomach is called the esophagus
  89. 87. What do you call the muscular action that moves food through the digestive system?
    87. Peristalsis
  90. 88. In simple stomached animals, what is the name of the region of the stomach where digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid are secreted?
    88. The fundic region is where digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid are secreted
  91. 89. What is the order of the four stomachs found in ruminants? What are two examples of ruminants? Which of the four stomachs is known as the true stomach?
    89. Food in ruminants first enters the rumen (where bacteria break it down), then the reticulum (for storage) and the omasum (for further storage) and lastly, the abomasum (the true stomach)
  92. 90. Where along the small intestine does the majority of digestion occur?
    90. The duodenum
  93. 91. What are two animals that do not have gall bladders?
    91. Rats and horse
  94. 92. What is the name of the opening where both urine and feces comes out in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish?
    92. Cloaca
  95. 93. What is the name of the valve between the stomach and the intestines?
    93. Pyloric sphincter
  96. 94. What are two animals are anatomically unable to vomit?
    94. Mice and horses cannot vomit
  97. 95. What are examples of animals that have a single, simple stomach?
    95. Horses, swine, most rodents, dogs, cats, rabbits primates (including humans) have a single simple stomach
  98. 96. What are the names of the three sections of the small intestine?
    96. The three sections of the small intestine are the duodenum, jejunum and the ileum
  99. 97. The liver produces a compound that is stored in the gall bladder. What is the name of that compound and what does it do?
    97. Bile, which breaks down fats, is stored in the gall bladder
  100. 98. Glycogen is stored in the liver. What is glycogen anyway?
    98. Glycogen is the stored form of glucose in animals
  101. 99. What are the functions of the urinary system? What is a nephron?
    99. The urinary system filters excess water and waste from blood and removes it from the body
  102. 100. What is the name of the organ that filters your blood
    • And produces urine?
    • 100. The kidney filters blood and produces urine
  103. 101. Where does urine come directly from, your blood, your bones, or your muscles?
    101. Blood
  104. 102. What is the name of the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body? What are the names of the tubes that connect the kidney to the bladder?
    102. The urethra is the tube that connects the bladder with the outside; the ureters connect the kidneys with the bladder
  105. 103. What are the main functions of the nervous system?
    103. The functions of the nervous system are to monitor an animal's internal environment, monitor an animal's external environment and the relay of messages that reflect changes in those environments
  106. 104. What is a neuron and what are its main three structural components? What is the name of the space or gap between two neurons and what is the general name of the chemicals that are released into that space?
    104. A neuron is a nerve cell; the three components of a neuron are the axons, the cell body and the dendrites; the name of the gap between two neurons is called the synapse; the general name of chemicals that neurons release into that space is neurotransmitters
  107. 105. What does CNS stand for?
    105. Central nervous system
  108. 106. What are the names of the main three parts of the brain? Which part is larger in mammals than reptiles?
    106. The main three parts of the brain are the cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum and the brain stem; the cerebral hemispheres is the part that is much larger in mammals than reptiles
  109. 107. The nervous system consists of which two subsystems?
    107. The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
  110. 108. The autonomic component of the nervous system is broken into two parts, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic. Which one is the one that makes you want to take a nap after eating lunch?
    108. The parasympathetic system makes you want to take a nap after eating lunch
  111. 109. What are the main functions of the endocrine system?
    109. The production and secretion of hormones and the regulation of body processes
  112. 110. What are hormones?
    110. Hormones are chemical messengers
  113. 111. What are six examples of endocrine glands? Which one is considered the master gland and controls how many of the others work? Which one produces insulin?
    111. Pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, gonads and pancreas are examples of endocrine glands; the pituitary gland is considered the master gland; the pancreas produces insulin
  114. 112. Which endocrine gland produces the hormone that regulates the metabolic rate of animals? What is the name of that hormone?
    112. The thyroid gland produces thyroxin which regulates the metabolic rate
  115. 113. What are the functions of the reproductive system?
    113. The reproductive system produces gametes (sperm and eggs) and hormones
  116. 114. What are gametes? What are gonads? What is the male gamete? What is the female gamete?
    114. Gametes are reproductive cells (sperm in males and eggs in females). Gonad are the organs within the reproductive system that produce gametes (testis in males and ovaries in females)
  117. 115. Which tube carries both sperm and urine?
    115. The urethra carries both sperm and eggs
  118. 116. What are the six main components of the female reproductive system? In which component of the system does fertilization of the egg usually occur? In which component of the system does a fertilized egg usually implant?
    116. The main components of the female reproductive system are the ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva; fertilization of an egg usually occurs in the oviduct; the fertilized egg implants in the wall of the uterus
  119. 117. What are the four stages of a female rat's reproductive cycle?
    117. Proestrus, estrus, metaestrus and diestrus are the four stages of the reproductive cycle
  120. 118. Where is the inguinal ring found?
    118. The inguinal ring is found at the junction of the scrotal sac and the abdominal cavity
  121. 119. What is the name of the sac on the testes where sperm are stored?
    119. Scrotal sac
  122. 120. What is the name of the tube that connects the epididymis with the urethra?
    120. Vas deferens
  123. 121. Relative to antibodies, what does the term titer refer to?
    121. The concentration or amount of antibody in the blood
  124. 122. How many grams are in a kilogram? How many pounds are in a kilogram? How many pounds are in 20 kilograms?
    122. 1000 grams are in a kilogram. 2.2 pounds are in a kilogram. 44 pounds are in 20 kilograms.
  125. 123. How many grams does a milliliter of water weigh?
    123. A milliliter of water weighs one gram.
  126. 124. If an animal's body temperature is measure at 40oC, what that be in degrees Farenheit?
    124. 40 times 1.8 equals 72. 72 plus 32 is 104. So that animal's temperature would be 104oF.
  127. 125. As we've talked about in class, muscles need oxygen. Is that even true of the muscles of the heart? If so, how do they get that oxygen? Is it from the blood passing through the chambers or is it from other blood vessels that move blood directly into the heart muscle?
    125. Yes. Oxygen gets to the heart muscle from vessels that move blood directly into the muscle. These vessels are called the coronary arteries.
  128. 126. At what temperature does water boil in degrees Farenheit? How about in degrees Celcius
    126. water boils at 212oF and 100oC

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