Unit 1 (Basic Concepts)

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nenyabrooke
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Unit 1 (Basic Concepts)
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2013-01-24 02:09:05
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Pathology
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Part 1 of Unit 1
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  1. any abnormal change in the function or structure of the body as a result of some type of injury:
    disease
  2. sequence of events producing cellular changes that lead to observable changes known as manifestations:
    pathogenesis
  3. the term to describe how the disease presents itself:
    manifestation
  4. the study of disease processes:
    pathology
  5. the patient's perception of the disease that has subjective manifestations:
    symptom
  6. an objective manifestation that can be detected by the physician during examination:
    sign
  7. a group of signs and symptoms that characterizes a specific abnormal disturbance.
    syndrome
  8. the study of the cause of a disease:
    etiology
  9. a term used when no cause for disease can be identified:
    idiopathic disease
  10. a disease that is acquired from the environment of the hospital:
    nosocomial disease
  11. adverse responses that occur from medical treatment itself:
    iatrogenic
  12. a disease that has a quick onset and last a short period of time:
    acute disease
  13. a disease that occurs more slowly and lasts a very long time:
    chronic disease
  14. the name of the disease:
    diagnosis
  15. the prediction of the course and outcome of the disease:
    prognosis
  16. lasting side effects from having an acute illness:
    sequelae
  17. description of a disease process in which there is decrease in body tissue density:
    • destructive/lytic/subtractive
    • (the atomic number of the tissue cells decreases or the compactness of the tissue cells decreases, or atrophy occurs from limited use)
  18. Body tissue is altered by increasing the normal tissue density.
    • additive/sclerotic disease process
    • (atomic number is increased or compactness of cells increases)
  19. diseases that produce lesions that are similar in form and structure:
    morphology
  20. the investigation of disease in large groups:
    epidemiology
  21. the number of cases of a disease found in a given population:
    prevalence
  22. the number of new cases of a disease found in a given time period:
    incidence
  23. diseases of high prevalence in an area where a given causative organism is commonly found:
    endemic
  24. give the example we used for an endemic:
    histoplasmosis is endemic to the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys
  25. excessive prevalence or an outbreak of disease in the same geographical area:
    epidemic
  26. a widespread epidemic, that is, a disease or outbreak that affects very high proportions of the population, or populations throughout the world:
    pandemic
  27. The number of deaths caused by a particular disease averaged over a population:
    mortality rate
  28. the incidence of sickness sufficient to interfere with an individual’s normal daily routine:
    morbidity rate
  29. tracks, monitors, and reports trends in health and aging and responsible for trending morbidity rates:
    • CDC (center for disease control and prevention)
    • reports to the NCHS
  30. collects death certificates from each state and publishes information on mortality statistics and trends:
    NCHS (the nation center for health statistics)
  31. monitors and reports mortality rates in terms of leading causes of death, according to sex, race, age, and specific causes of death such as heart disease or breast cancer:
    • NCHS (the nation center for health statistics)
    • DHHS (U.S. department of health and human services)
  32. leading causes of death in the US are _________ diseases. name the top two.
    • chronic
    • heart and malignant neoplasms
  33. over the past nine years, mortality rates have declined for:
    • cancer
    • heart disease
    • HIV
  34. mortality rates are on the rise for:
    • hypertension
    • Alzheimer's disease
  35. mortality info comes from ________________ and statistics can be affected by:
    • death certificates
    • how causes of death are coded
  36. an international coding system or standard diagnostic classification system used to report causes of death:
    tenth revision, international classification of diseases (ICD-10)
  37. used to classify diseases and other health problems and is recorded on many types of health and vital records including death certificates and health records:
    tenth revision, international classification of diseases (ICD-10)
  38. the total value of goods and services produced in a country over a period of time:
    GDP (gross domestic product)
  39. In 1998 U.S. health spending accounted for _______ of gross domestic product, a larger share than in any other major industrialized country.
    16%
  40. how much were health care expenditures in 2004?
    1.9 trillion
  41. the project coordinated by the US department of energy (DOE) and the national institutes of health (NIH) to identify all 20,000 to 25,000 genes in human DNA:
    the human genome project (1990-2003)
  42. be familiar with the applications of genome research:
    • Improved diagnosis of disease
    • Earlier detection of genetic predispositions to disease
    • Gene therapy
    • Newborn screening
    • Customized therapeutics
    • DNA forensics
  43. list the six disease classifications:
    • congenital and hereditary
    • inflammatory disease
    • degenerative disease
    • metabolic disease
    • traumatic disease
    • neoplastic disease
  44. present at birth, genetic or environmental causes:
    congenital
  45. developmental disorders passed down from parents/ancestors:
    hereditary
  46. results from  the body’s reaction to a localized injurious agent. Internal or external agents destroy cells or cause the body to injure itself through the inflammatory process:
    inflammatory disease
  47. a type of inflammatory disease stemming from invasion by microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi:
    infective diseases
  48. a type of inflammatory disease which results from poisoning by biologic substances:
    toxic disease
  49. a type of inflammatory disease that is an overreaction of the body’s own defenses:
    allergic disease
  50. a type of inflammatory disease in which antibodies are formed and act against and injure that patient’s own tissues:
    • autoimmune disorders
    • (ex. lupus, rheumatoid arthritis)
  51. a generalized pathologic process that is nonspecific to the agent causing the injury:
    inflammatory reaction
  52. with an inflammatory reaction, substances released from the damaged tissues can cause:
    both local and systemic effects
  53. clinical symptoms of acute inflammation:
    • red skin (rubor)
    • swelling (edema)
    • heat at site (calor)
    • pain (dolor)
    • some loss of function as the body tends to protect the injured part
    • system effects, such as fever, can occur if the inflammatory process is significant
  54. damage caused by an injurious agent may not necessarily result in tissue death:
    chronic infection
  55. when it comes to tissue regeneration, what type of cell doesn't normally replace itself?
    damaged nerve cells
  56. ________________________ is the alternative to regeneration, this leads to:
    • fibrous connective tissue repair
    • scarring and fibrosis
  57. removal of dead cells and materials:
    debridement
  58. replication of the cells via mitosis to fill in the tissues includes:
    • capillaries
    • fibroblasts
    • collagen
    • elastic fibers
  59. an inflammatory process caused by a disease-causing organism where the pathogenic agent multiplies and causes injurious effects:
    infection
  60. refers to the ease with which an organism can overcome the body’s defenses:
    virulence
  61. a type of disease in which the function or structure of the tissue deteriorates; process usually occurs with aging, but can occur in younger individuals, for example after an injury.
    degenerative disease
  62. the physiologic processes reach a peak, and gradually fade (degenerate) until the body can’t survive:
    the aging process
  63. factors affecting the aging process:
    • heredity
    • diet
    • environmental
  64. diseases common with aging:
    • atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
    • osteoporosis
    • osteoarthritis
  65. radiographic indication of osteoarthritis:
    bone spur (osteocyte)
  66. diseases caused by a disturbance of the normal physiologic function of the body:
    metabolic diseases
  67. the sum of all physical and chemical processes in the body:
    metabolism
  68. give some examples of metabolic diseases:
    • endocrine disorders –
    •   diabetes
    •   hyperparathyroidism
    • altered fluid and electrolyte balance 
  69. metabolic functions are regulated by:
    hormones secreted by endocrine glands
  70. list major endocrine glands:
    • pituitary gland
    • thyroid gland
    • parathyroid glands
    • adrenal glands
    • pancreatic islets
    • ovaries
    • testes
  71. mineral salts dissolved in the body’s water:
    electrolytes
  72. two examples of electrolytes:
    • sodium
    • potassium
  73. causes of electrolyte imbalance:
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • diuretics
  74. the most common disturbance of fluid balance, due to insufficient intake of water or excessive loss of water:
    dehydration
  75. disturbance of either fluid or electrolyte balances upset __________ , the body’s normal internal resting state:
    homeostasis
  76. a disease classification that may result from mechanical forces, effects of ionizing radiation, hot or cold temperatures:
    traumatic diseases
  77. an injury of soft parts associated with rupture of the skin:
    wound
  78. bleeding into the tissue spaces as a result of capillary rupture:
    bruise/contusion
  79. disease classification caused by alterations in cell growth, resulting in new, abnormal tissue growth:
    neoplastic disease
  80. the many types of cellular change that can occur in response to disease:
    lesion
  81. results from overgrowth of cells, they can be benign or malignant:
    neoplasm or tumor
  82. a general term denoting various types of malignant neoplasms:
    cancer
  83. when differences between the new cells and the original cells are small, the growth is termed:
    differentiated
  84. If cells have atypical characteristics, they are considered _____________________ and have a high probability of malignancy.
    poorly differentiated/undifferentiated
  85. the spread of cancer cells:
    metastasis
  86. the spreading of cancer cells by the blood stream:
    hematogenous spread
  87. the spreading of cancer cells by the lymphatic system:
    lymphatic spread
  88. the spreading of cancer cells into surrounding tissue because of close proximity of the area:
    invasion
  89. cancer cells travel to a distant site or distant organ system:
    seeding
  90. one type of cancer and is derived from epithelial tissue, this is not the same as the general term cancer:
    carcinoma
  91. a cancer which arises from connective tissue:
    sarcoma
  92. cancer which arises from blood cells:
    leukemia
  93. cancer which arises from lymphatic cells:
    lymphomas
  94. benign and malignant tumors are named according to:
    the tissue type of origin
  95. name three treatments of cancer:
    • surgery
    • chemotherapy
    • radiation therapy
  96. the type of cancer treatment depends on:
    • the type of cancer
    • location of the cancer
    • the stage of the cancer
    • the oncologist
  97. treatment that allows the patient to remain free of disease for five years or more:
    curative
  98. treatment which is designed to relieve pain when curing is not possible:
    palliative
  99. a classification used to determine the appropriate treatment and also, helps in determining prognosis:
    staging of cancer
  100. know the following tumor root words:

    adeno
    angio
    chondro
    fibro
    hemangio
    lipo
    myo
    neuro
    osteo
    • adeno: gland
    • angio: vascular
    • chondro: cartilage
    • fibro: fibrous tissue
    • hemangio: blood vessels
    • lipo: adipose tissue
    • myo: muscle
    • neuro: nerve
    • osteo: bone
  101. a system endorsed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) used to stage cancer:
    TNM system:

    • T represents the size of the untreated, primary tumor
    • N is the lymphnode involvement
    • M is the metastasis of the lesion
  102. be familiar with the TNM grading system:
    • T0: no evidence of primary tumor exists
    • T1-T4: indicate an increasing size and extension of the tumor
    • N0: indicates lack of regional lymph node metastasis.
    • N1-N3: indicate increasing involvement of regional lymph nodes
    • M0: indicates no distant metastasis
    • M1: indicates distant metastasis
  103. additional categorization of tumors, past the TNM system, based on:
    • the tumors primary site
    • histopathologic type and grade
    • lymphatic or venous invasion
    • residual tumor classification
  104. neoplastic cells are examined histologically, and these growths are categoized or “graded” according to:
    • their degree of differentiation
    • (grade 1 is the least malignant, grade 4 is the most malignant)
  105. generalized decrease in cell size:
    atrophy
  106. a generalized increase in cell size:
    hypertrophy
  107. absence of tumor cell differentiation, loss of cellular organization:
    anaplasia
  108. an increase in the number of cells in tissues as a result of excessive proliferation:
    hyperplasia
  109. abnormal transformation of a specific differentiated cell into a differentiated cell of another type:
    metaplasia
  110. abnormal changes of mature cells:
    • dysplasia
    • also called atypical hyperplasia

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