Nutrition 1020

Card Set Information

Nutrition 1020
2013-01-21 00:09:56

Nutrition Basics and Terminology 1.1
Show Answers:

  1. Diet:
    The kind and amount of food consumed each day.
  2. Food:
    Anything that nourishes the body.
  3. Nourish:
    To keep alive.
  4. Nutrition:
    The study of how food keeps us alive.

    – Includes the ingestion,digestion, absorption,assimilation, and excretionof food.
  5. Nutritional Sciences:
    The study of nutrition including dietary components and metabolism.
  6. Nutrient:
    Molecular substances that are nourishing or that provide nourishment to cells and thus every multicellular component of the human organism.
  7. Essential:
    The body cannot make these nutrients,they must be consumed. Without an intake, specific deficiency signs and symptom occur.
  8. Nonessential:
    The body can make these nutrients.Without an intake, nutritional deficiency signs and symptom do not occur.
  9. Energy Producing:
    Produces Calories when metabolized by the body.
  10. Non-Energy Producing:
    Do not provide Calories but have other important functions.
  11. Molecules to Cells to Organisms in the Order of Life
    • Molecule
    • nutrient
    • cell
    • tissue
    • organ
    • organ system
    • organism
  12. Overview of the Nutrients:
    Water contains
    Oxygen; Hydrogen
  13. Overview of the Nutrients

    Carbohydrate contains
    Oxygen; Carbon; Hydrogen
  14. Overview of the Nutrients

    Fat contains
    Oxygen; Carbon; Hydrogen
  15. Overview of the Nutrients

    Protein contains
    Oxygen; Carbon; Hydrogen; Nitrogen
  16. Overview of the Nutrients

    Vitamins contain
    Oxygen; Carbon; Hydrogen, Nitrogen*

    *some B vitamins contain Nitrogen
  17. Overview of the Nutrients

    Minerals contain
  18. The Six Categories of Nutrients
    • Can be divided into two categories:
    • • Energy Producing Nutrients    (Macronutrients)
    •   – Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins
    • • Essential Non-caloric Nutrients
    • – Vitamins & Minerals
    • (Micronutrients)
    • – Water
    • • Energy producing nutrients provide Calories
  19. The Kilocalorie (Calorie):
    – The unit used to measure energy.

    – It is the amount of heat energy required to raise one kilogram of water one degree Celsius (C)from 36o-37oC (actually a kilocalorie, Kcal or Calorie denoted with a capitol “C”).
  20. Energy Producing Nutrients
    Carbohydrate provides 4 Calories per gram

    Protein provides 4 Calories per gram

    Fat provides 9 Calories per gram

    Alcohol provides 7 Calories per gram
  21. How do we apply the Kilocalorie (Calorie) definition to the energy applied to food?
    By using a Bomb Calorimeter.
  22. Energy Production in the Body

    The ultimate fuel used in the body is a chemical called

    • ATP = Adenosine Tri-Phosphate

    • We capture the chemical energy between the carbon-carbon bonds in Carbohydrate, Fat and Protein to form ATP
  23. Nicknames: Energy Producing Nutrients

    Carbohydrates are the
    High Performance Fuel

    – Carbs are fast and best at making ATP
  24. Nicknames: Energy Producing Nutrients

    Fats are the
    Low Level Fuel

    – Fats are very slow to produce ATP
  25. Nicknames: Energy Producing Nutrients

    Proteins are the
    building blocks for growth and repair

    – Only under intense stress does protein provide ATP

    – Loads of toxic waste is produced when protein is over consumed
  26. What does non-caloric mean?
    • • No ability to generate ATP
    • • No Calorie value
    • • Some non-caloric nutrients can be essential for the body
    • • Physiological failure or death occurs if the nutrient is withheld from the diet
  27. The Goal of Eating
    To fuel and nourish the body optimally
  28. Food keeps us alive by providing Calories (energy) and Nutrients. The relationship between Calories and Nutrients is called:
    Nutrient Density: Refers to the amount of nutrients provided relative to the number of Calories. Foods with high nutrient density are nutritious.
  29. Result of a sound diet:
    Health: The state of complete physical,mental, and social well-being; not just the absence of infirmity.
  30. Result of a poor diet:
    Malnutrition: Impairment of health resulting from deficiency, toxicity, or imbalance of nutrient intake or body utilization (includes over-nutrition and under-nutrition).