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Carbohydrate (Carbs or CHO)
Composition: Carbohydrate is made of the elements carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen.
Organic Compound: Carbohydrate is organic because it contains carbon. It is a compound because it has more than one element in its structure.
Common Names of Sugars
- – Glucose is blood sugar
- – Fructose is fruit sugar
- – Sucrose is table sugar
- – Lactose is milk sugar
- – Maltose is malt sugar
Starch (digestible & caloric)
– Alpha linked glucose molecules in starch can be broken apart by the enzyme alpha-amylase to produce energy.
– The glucose units that are released are absorbed into the blood stream.
Fiber (indigestible & noncaloric)
- – Beta linked glucose molecules cannot be broken apart by human enzymes so no energy is produced.
- – The glucose units are not released and thus fiber is not absorbed.
- – Cellulose is the most common type of fiber.
Carbohydrate Food Sources
• Grains, Cereals, & Legumes:Pasta, bread, cold/hot cereal,rice, oats, kidney beans, etc.
• Fruits & Vegetables
• Starchy Vegetables: Corn,potato, peas, acorn squash, etc.
Plant Carbohydrate Sources
• Simple carbohydrates:Fruit, table sugar, sweets &sugar sweetened cereals.
• Complex carbohydrates:Vegetables, starchy vegetables, grains,legumes, & whole grain cereals.
Animal Carbohydrate Food Sources
• Milk (& milk products yogurt &cheese) contain lactose.
• Honey contains glucose, fructose &small amounts of other sugars.
• Animal foods usually provide mostly protein & fat.
• Milk & milk products also provide protein & varying amounts of fat.
How much carbohydrate do you need?
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) is:
45-65% of Calories from carbohydrates
<25% of Calories from sugars
How much fiber do you need?
The dietary recommendation for fiber is 1.4 gram per 100 Calories consumed
- • Provides 7 Calories/gram.
- • Is a carbohydrate related substance.
- • Lacks nutritional value.
- • Is a CNS depressant.
- • Is considered a drug.
- • Is commonly ingested.
- • One serving per day may reduce heart disease risk but increase cancer risk.