Function Organization of the Endocrine System

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Chemical Messengers
    Allow cells to communicate with each other to regulate body activities
  2. secretion
    controlled release of chemicals from a cell
  3. Classes of Chemical Messengers
    • 1. Autocrine
    • 2. Paracrine
    • 3. Neurotransmitter
    • 4. Endocrine
  4. Autrocrine chemical messengers
    • -Stimulates the cell that originally secreted it
    • -secreted by cells in a local area

    • Example: white blood cells during an infection
    • -Eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, prostacyclins, leukotrienes)
  5. Paracrine Chemical Messengers
    • -act locally on nearby cells
    • -secreted by one cell type into the extracellular fluid and affect surrounding cells

    • Example: Histamine stimulates vasodilation in nearby blood vessels during allergic reactions
    • -Somatostatin, histamine, eicosanoids
  6. Neurotransmitters
    • -secreted by neurons that activate an adjacent cell, with it is another neuron, a muscle cell, or a glandular cell. 
    • -secreted into a synaptic cleft (not bloodstream) by presynaptic nerve terminals
    • -travels short distances
    • -influences postsynaptic cells

    Examples: acetylcholine, epinephrine
  7. Endocrine chemical messengers
    • -secreted into the bloodstream by certain cells and glands.
    • -travels some distance to target tissues
    • -results in coordinated regulation of cell function

    Examples: thyroid hormones, growth hormones, insulin, epinephrine, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, prostaglandins
  8. Endocrine system
    -composed of endocrine glands and specialized endocrine cells located throughout the body

    • -endocrine:
    • endo = within
    • krino = secrete
  9. hormones
    secreted by endocrine glands into bloodstream (circulatory system) to specific sites called target tissues (effectors) where they produce a coordinated response of the target tissues

    • -produced in small quantities
    • -secreted into intercellular space
    • -transported some distance in circulatory system
    • -acts on target tissues elsewhere in body

    -regulates activities of body structures
  10. Exocrine glands
    have ducts that carry their secretions to the outside of the body (i.e. saliva, sweat, breast milk, and digestive enzymes) or into a hollow organ (i.e. stomach or intestines.)
  11. Comparison of Nervous and Endocrine systems - similarities
    1. associated with the brain (hypothalamus: neural functions and hormone production)

    2. May use same chemical messenger as neurotransmitter (i.e. epinephrine into synaptic cleft) and hormone (epinephrine into bloodstream)

    • 3. Two systems work together to regulate critical body processes
    • -Some neurons secrete hormones. Nervous system secretes neuroendocrine peptides (neurohormones), into circulatory system
    • -some parts of endocrine system innervated directly by nervous system
Card Set:
Function Organization of the Endocrine System
2013-01-21 05:41:10
Endocrine System

A&P - Chapter 17
Show Answers: