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1. What is the scientific name of the following animals?
- A. laboratory mouse
- B. laboratory rat
- C. guinea pig
- D. laboratory rabbit
- E. hamster
- F. gerbil
- G. dog
- H. cat
- I. rhesus macaque
- J. cattle
- K. horse
- L. chicken
- M. domestic swine
- N. African clawed frog
- A. Mus musculus
- B. Rattus norvegicus
- C. Cavia porcellus
- D. Oryctolagus cuniculus
- E. Mesocricetus auratus
- F. Meriones unguiculatus
- G. Canis familiaris
- H. Felis catus
- I. Macaca mulatta
- J. Bos taurus
- K. Equus caballus
- L. Gallus domesticus
- M. Sus scrofa
- N. Xenopus laevis
2. Mice have an anus where their feces comes out and a urogenital opening where urine comes out and copulation takes place. Relative to the distance between these two openings, how do you tell the difference between males and females? To which other common lab rodents does this same technique apply?
2. The difference between the anus and the urogenital opening is 1.5 to 2 times greater in the male than the female. This same difference applies to rats and gerbils.
3. Mice are polyestrus. What does that mean?
3. An animal that is polyestrus is one that will have repeating estrous cycles, one after another.
4. What is unique about nude mice relative to their immune system? What husbandry changes do nude mice require?
4. The are missing their thymus gland and are therefore unable to produce T-cells which means that are unable to produce antibodies. In terms of husbandry changes, nude mice needed to be housed in a warmer environment than normal mice.
5. In human females, the length of the estrous cycle is usually about 28 days. What is the length of the estrous cycle in mice?
5. 4-5 days
6. What is the gestation length in mice? At what age are mice usually weaned?
6. The gestation length of mice is 19-21 days; mice are usually weaned at 21 days of age
7. When picking mice up out of their cage, why is it important to grasp them by the base of the tail rather than the tip? Describe the difference between how a mouse is held for simply handling and how a mouse is held for the purpose of restraint?
7. Because the sheath of skin covering the tail is thickest there, minimizing the chance that that skin of the tail will come off when your grasp the animal by the tail. When mice are simply handled, it means holding them by the tail to move them from one place to another. When they are restrained however, their entire body is held by grasping a large fold of skin on the scruff of the neck
8. How are mouse generally held for the purpose of gavaging them?
8. By grasping them by the scruff of the neck and holding them upright
9. What is the oldest inbred strain of mice?
9. DBA (dilute brown agouti)
10. What are some common methods used to identify mice? How about rats?
10. Ear notch, ear tags, tail tattoo, microchips implanted under the skin, and as a last resort, toe clipping.
11. C57BL/6, BALB/c, C3H, and DBA are examples of strains of which type of animal?
12. What are some examples of breeds of rats that are used in research? What are two examples of inbred strains of rats used in research?
12. The most common breed of rat is Sprague Dawley, others include Wistar and Long-Evans; inbred strains of rats include Lewis (LEW) and Fisher 344 (F344)
13. Are rats polyestrus?
13. Yes, rats are polyestrus
14. What is the recommended acclimation period for rodents to recover from the stress of shipment?
14. The minimum acclimation period to recover from the stress of transportation is 48-72 hours
15. What is the most common infectious disease in rats? What causes ringtail in rats?
15. Chronic respiratory disease; low humidity causes ring tail
16. Do rats have approximately the same gestation length and age of weaning as do mice? How long is the gestation length for these animals. At what age are they weaned?
16. Yes, rats and mice have approximately the same gestation length (~21 days) and weaning age (~21 days)
17. Roughly how much does an adult mouse weigh? How about an adult rat?
17. Adult mice weigh 25-40 grams; adults rats weigh 250-400 grams
18. Which animals tend to be more aggressive with each other, male rats or male mice?
18. Male mice are more aggressive with each other than male rats
19. What is an example of a hooded rat?
19. Long-Evans is a hooded rat which means their bodies are one color (white) and their heads are another (black)
20. Is it OK to pick up mice by the scruff of the neck? How about rats? Is it generally considered OK to give mice an IM injection? How about rats?
20. Mice can be picked up by the scruff of the neck; rats tend not to like being picked up by the scruff; mice should not be given IM injections because their muscle mass is too small; rats can be given IM injections
21. Roughly how many baby mice are in a litter? Is it approximately the same for rats?
21. Mice usually have 8-12 offspring in a litter. Rats have approximately the same number
22. What is the red fluid secreted from the eyes of rats called?
22. Rats secrete porphyrin from the Harderian gland in near their eyes
23. What is the common name of the hamster most commonly used in research?
23. The most common hamster is the Golden Syrian
24. Hamsters don't often get sick. When they do however, what do they usually get?
24. The develop diarrhea which is referred to in hamsters as wet tail.
25. Which lab animals tend to hibernate when the temperature gets low enough?
25. Hamsters will hibernate when t he temperature gets in the 0-5oC range
26. Mice and rats are usually housed as a harem (one male, multiple females) for mating. Is the same true of hamsters? Also, how do you tell the difference between male and female hamsters?
26. No, hamsters are usually housed separately and then for breeding, the female is brought to the males cage, allowed to mate, then returned to her home cage. Male hamsters have a rounded posterior end while females have a more pointed posterior end
27. In the week following giving birth, are female hamsters more prone to eating their offspring than are female rats and mice?
28. What is the gestation length and weaning age for hamsters?
28. The gestation length of hamsters is 15-16 days; their weaning age is 21 days
29. Does an adult hamster weigh roughly the same as an adult gerbil or an adult rat?
29. An adult hamster weight about the same as an adult gerbil
30. Is it hamsters or rats that have large cheek pouches?
30. Hamsters have large cheek pouches
31. Are hamsters in a research environment generally more aggressive toward people than rats or mice?
32. Will hamsters tolerate being grabbed by the scruff of the neck? If so, can you pretty much scruff them the same way as mice or should you be more conscious of grabbing all the fur along the entire back.
32. Hamsters can be held by the scruff but when doing so, one must grab all the fur along the entire length of the dorsal surface
33. Which lab animal has lateral (flank) scent marking glands?
34. Which rodent is it that is prone to getting epileptic seizures and has ventral scent marking glands?
34. Gerbils are prone to getting epileptic seizures and have ventral scent marking glands.
35. What is the common name of the gerbil most commonly used in research?
35. The Mongolian gerbil is the most common breed used in research
36. Are gerbils generally held by the base of the tail or the scruff?
36. Gerbils are usually held by the base of the tail
37. Newborn guinea pigs are said to be precocious. What does that mean?
37. Precocious means that at birth, they have fully haired bodies and eyes that are open. In general, they are well enough developed that they can pretty much live on their own
38. How does the way you pick up a guinea pig differ from how you would pick up a mouse?
38. Guinea pigs tend not to tolerate being grabbed by the scruff and they don't have much of a tail so to pick them up, one would generally grab their entire body, often using both hands to do it
39. Guinea pigs have a vitamin requirement that most other rodents don't. What is it?
39. Guinea pigs cannot make their own vitamin C and therefore require it in their diet
40. How does the gestation length of guinea pigs differ from that of rats and mice? How does it differ from that of dogs and cats?
40. The gestation length of guinea pigs is approximately 63 days whereas that of rats and mice is just 21 days
41. How do you tell the difference between male and female guinea pigs?
41. Telling the difference between male and female guinea pigs requires that you apply digital pressure around the urogenital opening. If this causes and organ to protrude out from the opening, that animal is a male
42. Which rodent has cloudy urine?
42. Guinea pigs
43. What signs would you expect a sick ferret to exhibit?
43. Sick ferrets often develop a rough hair coat, looking ruffled and unkempt
44. What is the common name of the most common breed or rabbits used in research?
44. New Zealand White
45. Which laboratory animal is known to play with their water supply?
45. Rabbits and guinea pigs will play with their water supply
46. According to the ILAR Guide, how high must an enclosure used to house rabbits be?
46. The ILAR Guide states that rabbit enclosures must be 14 inches high
47. Are rabbits rodents?
47. Rabbits are not rodents, they are lagomorphs
48. Rabbits can be prone to getting sore hocks. What is that?
48. Because rabbits do not have callused foot pads, the skin on the bottom of their feet is prone to getting irritated and even developing lesions. This condition is referred to as sore hocks
49. What is a female rabbit called?
49. A female rabbit is called a doe
50. Is it true that rabbits should be weighed and have their nails trimmed every 4-6 weeks?
51. Rabbits have urine that is very basic, meaning it has a lot of base in it and not much acid. What should rabbit pans therefore be treated with to neutralize the urine, making it easier to remove?
51. Rabbits pans and cages need to be treated with an acid descaler in order to neutralize the urine so it can be rinsed off
52. Describe how do take a rabbit out of a cage and hold her. Also describe how to put a rabbit back into her cage.
52. When removing a rabbit from a cage, first grab her by the scruff of the neck. Holding her by the scruff, remove her from the cage and immediately tuck her into your other arm so that she is being held like a football. Continue to hold the scruff. When returning a rabbit to her cage, grasping her by the scruff, put her back in so that she is facing you. She will turn around to move herself into the cage, decreasing the chance she will jump aggressively which could potentially damage her spine.
53. Are rabbits housed more like mice (harem) or hamsters (separate housing) for breeding purposes?
53. Rabbits are housed more like hamsters (separate housing) for breeding purposes.
54. How do you tell the difference between male and female rabbits?
54. As with guinea pigs, use your fingers to apply digital pressure around the urogenital opening. If an organ protrudes, it is a male
55. Rabbits are induced ovulators. What does that mean?
55. It means that a female will not ovulate unless subjected to vaginal stimulation such as would result from a male penetrating her
56. What is the gestation length of rabbits?
56. The gestation length for rabbits is 29-35 days
57. Rabbits are said to be coprophagic. What does that mean?
57. Animals that are coprophagic eat their own feces
58. How are rabbits usually identified?
58. Rabbits are usually identified by an ear tattoo or ear tag
59. What infectious agent causes "snuffles" in rabbits?
59. Pasteurella multocida causes snuffles in rabbits
60. What are examples of animals that can be held by the tail?
60. Mice, rats, gerbils and opossums
61. What types of research are rabbits often used for?
61. Antibody production, atherosclerosis, pyrogen testing of drugs
62. Do rabbits generally prefer a lower room temperature than most other animals? If so, how low? If the temperature in a rabbit room is too high, what will you notice increasing in rabbits?
62. Rabbits prefer the temperature in their rooms to be cooler than most other animals, ideally around 60-65oF (15.5-18.3oC). If the room temperature it too high, the rabbits will shed a lot more.
63. In addition to its high pH, what else is unique about the urine of rabbits?
63. Rabbit urine is very cloudy
64. How does USDA require that cats and dogs be identified? What information is required to be maintained on every dog or cat held at a facility? How long are those records required to be maintained? How long would a tag used to identify an animal need to be maintained after that animal has died?
64. USDA requires that dogs and cats be identified with either a tattoo or collar with a tag that they issue; the information a facility is required to maintain for every dog or cat includes the breed, distinctive markings, age, gender, ID number and date of arrival; the records must be maintained for three years; tags used to identify animal must be maintained for two years after the animal has been euthanized or adopted out
65. As far as USDA is concerned, what is the difference between "Class A" and "Class B" dealers?
65. Class A dealers breed their own animals and sell them directly to research facilities; Class B dealers obtain animals bred at other facilities and then sell them to research facilities
66. Cats and dogs have closed inguinal rings while rodents have open inguinal rings. How does that effect where the testicles may be found?
66. Animals with open inguinal rings can retract their testicles up into their abdominal cavity; animals with closed inguinal rings can't
67. How is it generally best to approach an unfamiliar cat?
67. Quietly while speaking softly and moving slowly
68. Is the gestation length of dogs and cats more like that of guinea pigs or rabbits?
68. Guinea pigs (65 days)
69. What is a female cat called? How about a male? What is a female dog called? How about a male?
69. A female cat is called a queen. A male cat is called a tom. A female dog is called a bitch and a male dog is called a dog
70. How often are dog runs usually cleaned?
70. Dog runs should be hosed out at least once every day
71. In addition to a food and water source, enclosures used to house cats need some other amenities. What are some examples of these other cage components?
71. Litter pan and resting surface that is elevated off the floor of the cage. Also, ideally cats should be offered a surface they can scratch.
72. Dogs are not usually housed in cages but are more commonly housed in runs. What is the difference? According to the USDA regulations, how large must an enclosure used to house dogs be?
72. Cages tend to be smaller and have wire floors while runs tend to be larger and often have solid floors; according to USDA, to determine how big an enclosure used to house a dog should be, measure the dog from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail, add six inches to that measurement, then square that total that gives you the number of square inches that dogs enclosure must be
73. Is it true that dogs should be given the opportunity to exercise regularly?
74. Describe how to restrain a dog so that someone could take a jugular blood sample.
74. To take a jugular blood sample, a dog should be held on a secure surface, with the handler's arm placed around the dog's neck, thus bringing the animal's head up to the handler's shoulder. The other arm is placed around the animal's chest
75. How should you approach a strange dog?
75. Slowly, with a quiet and soothing voice, with a hand extended, palm down and finger folded
76. Why is it so important to wear the appropriate protective clothing when working with primates?
76. Because of the tremendous number of zoonotic pathogens that can move between these animals and humans.
77. In terms of their diet, guinea pigs and primates have something in common. What is it?
77. Both guinea pigs and primates require vitamin C be present in their chow.
78. Is it true that primates establish very well defined social hierarchies?
79. How are primates usually identified?
79. Primates are identified by tattoos on their inner thigh and chest
80. Describe the different types of housing that are used for primates.
80. Primates can either be housed indoors individually or preferably in groups, or outdoors in group pens.
81. Is there are particular species of primates that often give birth to twins?
82. Describe some of the differences between Old World and New World primates including both physical differences as well as where they originate from.
82. Old World primates have callous pads on their buttocks, nostrils that open downward, a pronounced forehead, cheek pouches, and eyes set close together. New World monkeys have neither cheek pouches or callous pads, their nostrils tend to open either to the front or sides and they tend to have long tails. The tails of some New World monkeys are prehensile meaning they can be used to grip.
83. Which of the following animals are ruminants? a.swine b.sheep c.goats d.horses e.cattle
83. Sheep, goats, and cattle are ruminants meaning they have four stomachs. Swine and horses have just a single stomach and are therefore not ruminants.
84. If sheep are fed a commercially prepared, pelleted chow, are they usually fed ad lib or measured amounts?
84. Sheep fed pelleted chows are usually provided measured amounts because such chows are so concentrated with nutrients
85. Describe some of the behavioral characteristics of sheep.
85. Sheep are gregarious animals that like to be together in flocks. They are shy and non-aggressive, spending much of their time grazing.
86. What is the gestation length for the domestic pig? How about sheep and goats?
86. The gestation length for swine is 112-115 day; the gestation length for sheep is 144-151 days and goats is the same, 144-151 days
87. Do goats tend to be very selective in what they eat or drink or will they consume just about anything?
87. Goats will often refuse dusty, stale or dirty food and are therefore thought to be quite selective in the food they consume. They are often thought of as animals that will eat anything but this largely comes from their tendency to learn about their environment with their mouths, rather than a willingness to actually consume anything
88. Which of the following animals may need to have their hooves trimmed?
- a. swine
- b. sheep
- c. goats
- d. horses
- 88. All of the animals listed may need to have their hooves trimmed, including swine
89. Describe some of the behavioral differences between sheep and goats.
89. Goats tend to be more destructive than sheep and they are much better climbers and jumpers as well. Goats also tend to be more active than shee
90. What do you call a young female pig?
90. A young female pig is called a gilt
91. What do you call an adult male pig?
91. An adult male pig is called a boar
92. Is it possible to restrain sheep by sitting them on their hindquarters and holding their head?
92. Yes, it is called tipping
93. When holding a goat by the horns, where on the horns should you hold them?
93. When holding goats by the horns, they should be held at the base of the horn, where the attach to the head
94. Describe the signs of a horse that may be feeling irritated or aggressive.
94. Irritated horses tend to paw at the ground, toss their heads and have their ears laid back against their head
95. Do cattle tend to be gregarious and prefer to be together or solitary and away from others? How about horses?
95. Cattle tend to be very gregarious, preferring to be in groups. Horses are also very social animals.
96. Should horses be fed one large amount daily or smaller amounts two to three times per day?
96. To prevent overeating, horses should be fed smaller amounts multiple times per day
97. What precautions should be taken when providing water to a horse that is overheated?
97. Overheated horses can over-drink, resulting in potentially severe digestive problems. They should therefore be given smaller amounts of water spread out over time Overheated horses can over-drink, resulting in potentially severe digestive problems. They should therefore be given smaller amounts of water spread out over time
98. From which side should horses usually be approached?
98. Horses are usually approached at an angle from the left side
99. How are chickens usually identified?
99. Chicken are usually identified with a metal leg band
100. Describe the different types of housing used to maintain chickens.
100. Chicks are usually maintained in heated cages, starting at about 95oF and reducing 5 oF per week until it reaches 60 oF. At that time, chickens can be housed individually in cages or group housed in pens
101. What is grit and why is it necessary that it be fed to chickens?
101. Grit is made of small rocks or oyster shells and is necessary to help birds grind up their food since they have no teeth
102. What is the name of the opening into which the reproductive, digestive, and urinary tracts all end? Which animals have that type of opening?
102. The opening is called the cloaca; birds reptiles, amphibians and fish have cloacas
103. How are chickens most commonly held? How do you tell the difference between male and female chickens?
103. Chickens are usually held with their wings pinned to their body. They can also be carried by their legs. Male and female chickens have different primary sex characteristics which means that they different physical features. Specifically, males are larger in general and have much larger combs and wattles.
104. Are amphibians particularly sensitive to temperature changes?
104. Amphibians tend to be quite sensitive to rapid temperature changes, especially tadpoles
105. How do you tell the difference between male and female bullfrogs? How about male and female African clawed frogs?
105. Male bullfrogs have large tympanic membranes (ear drums), about the same size as their eyes, on each side of their head; female African clawed frogs tend to be larger than males and males have black surfaces on the inner part of their forelimbs
106. Are amphibians able to breath through their skin?
106. Yes, to a limited extent
107. If you need to rinse something off of the skin of an amphibian, how should you do it?
107. Because amphibians have such porous skin, they should be rinsed off with dechlorinated water
108. Why is it important to wet your hands prior to handling amphibians or fish?
108. Having your hands wet reduces the chance of removing the protective mucous coating amphibians have on their skin
109. Describe the environmental parameters that one must monitor when housing amphibians.
109. When housing amphibians, it is important to eliminate dissolved toxic materials like ammonia, keep the water hardness low, keep the carbon dioxide level low, keep the temperature of the water constant and suitable for the species and keep the pH of the water close to neutral
110. Are frogs, toads, and salamanders all amphibians?
111. What are some examples of amphibians commonly used in research?
111. The most common amphibian used in research is the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis; others include the leopard frog, Rana pipiens and the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum
112. For most amphibians, what is the best way to determine their gender?
112. To observe their actual courtship
113. Is it important to maintain a light cycle even for fish? What is the term for the number of hours the lights are on in a given room?
113. Yes, fish should have a light cycle. The term for the number of hours the lights are on in a room is photoperiod. Fluorescent lights should be used because they produce less heat
114. For each of the following, state which animal it refers to:
- A. allow their fur to shed abruptly (fur-slip) when alarmed (hint: it is the same animal who takes regular dust baths)
- B. Is for hepatitis B research
- C. has a gestation length of approximately 111 days
- D. is used to study viral diseases (such as influenza and canine distemper) and teratogens
- E. Marmota monax
- F. Didelphis virginianus and used to study development biology
- A. chinchilla
- B. woodchuck
- C. chinchilla
- D. ferret
- E. woodchuck
- F. opposum
115. If you have several mice in a cage that each weigh 30 grams and therefore each require 15 square inches of space, how many of them could you put in a cage that is 60 square inches?
115. If each require 15 square inches, you could house four in a 60 square inch cage.
116. Armadillos are know to be susceptible to a disease that is often associated with humans. What is that disease?
117. What does it mean if an animal is cold-blooded?
117. It means there body temperature is approximately that of the environment in which the live
118. Which of the following animals are cold-blooded?
- A. reptiles
- B. fish
- C. birds
- D. amphibians
- 118. All of the animals listed except birds are cold-blooded
119. When adapting an animal to it's new environment, which animal is thought to be adapted if he eats?
119. Snakes will often not eat until they have adapted to their new environment
120. Are snakes herbivores, omnivores or carnivores?
120. Snakes are carnivorous
121. What type of light (ultraviolet, fluorescent, incandescent, sunlight) should be used for fish?
121. Fish require fluorescent light because that source of light does not give off heat
122. What animals are used to study hepatitis B?
122. Woodchucks are used to study hepatitis B
123. Besides having no hair, what is unique about nude mice?
123. Nude mice also lack a thymus gland which make them immunocompromised
124. What does the SCID part of SCID mice stand for?
124. SCID stands for Severe Combined Immuno Deficient
125. Which animals like to take dust baths?
126. Relative to the husbandry, what change in the care of rats has been shown to increase their longevity?
126. Decreasing their daily caloric intake by 5%.
127. Which organ systems are often studied in swine because they are so similar to humans?
127. Circulatory (particularly because of the similarity of their hearts) and digestive systems
128. Gerbils tend to not be very aggressive animals either with each other or humans. However what circumstance can cause them to become more aggressive with each other?
128. Gerbils can become more aggressive when overcrowded.
129. Do male or female mice tend to be more aggressive with each other?
129. Males mice tend to be more aggressive than females
130. Rabbits have been known to develop lymphadenitis. What are the signs of this condition?
130. Swollen lymph nodes that may even present as lesions on the neck.
131. At what age do baby rabbits begin leaving the nest box and start eating solid food?
131. Approximately 4 weeks
132. Which rodent is known to get but just a few diseases?
133. For each of the following, define the average frequency that their cage is cleaned:
- A. gerbils
- B. dogs
- C. mice
- D. rabbits
- A. gerbils - once per week
- B. dogs - daily
- C. mice - once per week
- D. rabbits - once per two weeks if housing on wire bottom cage
134. What is the most common way to euthanize fish?
134. Add tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) to their water
135. Relative to mouse strain nomenclature, what does the / (forward slash) mean?
135. The forward slash separates the original or parent strain from the substrain of that parent strain. So for C57Bl/6 for example, the parent strain is C57BL and the substrain is 6
136. Relative to mouse strain nomenclature, what does F7 mean?
136. F7 means that strain is the seventh generation
137. What is the scientific name of the laboratory rat? How about the laboratory mouse?
137. The laboratory rat is Ratus norvegicus and the laboratory mouse is Mus musculus.
138. According to the ILAR Guide, how high must the cages for the following animals be?
- A. mice
- B. rats
- C. rabbits
- A. mice - 5 inches
- B. rats - 7 inches
- C. rabbits - 14 inches
139. In mice, what is barbering?
139. Barbering is when a dominant animal asserts his dominance over a submissive animal by biting the submissive animal, often around the rump area.
140. When designed an enclosure for goats, what behavioral characteristic do you need to keep in mind.
140. That goats have a tremendous jumping ability
141. Which of the rodents we talked about in class is a strict herbivore?
141. Guinea pigs
142. What are indicators that a female cat is in heat?
142. A female cat in heat will adopt a posture, called lordosis, quite readily when touched when she is in heat. When in that posture, she will bend or front legs so her chest is close to the ground and raise her lower legs and move her tail to the side so that a male is more easily able to mate with her. Female cats in heat also tend to vocalize more.
143. For which species are the most thorough and complete acquisition and disposition records required?
143. Dogs and cats
144. Which species does USDA require be identified with either a tattoo or USDA tag on a collar?
144. Dogs and cats
145. What laboratory animal will hibernate when the temperature at which they are maintained reaches ~5oC?
146. How do you determine the space requirement of a snake?
146. A snake should be given one square foot of space for every one foot of body length.
147. What is the genus and species of the woodchuck?
147. Marmota monax
148. Relative to a newborn mouse, what is the most basic way of assessing that mouse's wellbeing?
148. When a mouse is first born, the milk-filled stomach will be visible through the nearly translucent skin. If you see that, you know the baby is getting milk which for a newborn mouse, is the best indicator of well-being.
149. Which animals have cheek pouches and are also used for transplant studies?
150. Which rodent is naturally desert dwelling and therefore conserves water and has a small output of urine?
151. Which animals have both cheek pouches as well as a high immunologic tolerance which makes them suitable for transplant studies?
152. Roughly what percent of the mammals used in research are rats and mice?
153. The most common primate used in research is the rhesus monkey. Is that animal an old world or new world primate?