Bio 220 - Chapter 4 Energy Cell Metabolism

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cbennett
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194123
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Bio 220 - Chapter 4 Energy Cell Metabolism
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2013-02-02 21:22:58
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Bio 220 Chapter Energy Cellular Metabolism
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Bio 220 - Chapter 4
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  1. Cells need energy to...
    • make new molecules
    • repair or recycle aging parts
    • import raw materials
  2. Isozymes
    • play an important role in the dx of certain medical conditions
    • are enzymes that catalyze the same reaction
    • have complex structures with multiple protein chains
  3. a competitive inhibitor binds to...
    the active site
  4. an allosteric modulator binds to
    a region of the enzyme other than the active site
  5. changes in the pH or temperature of an enzyme, changes the activity of the enzyme due to...
    change of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme
  6. the active sites of enzymes are
    regions of an enzyme that are involved in bringing reactants together
  7. all chemical reactions that take place within an organism
    metabolism
  8. reactions that require energy and result in the synthesis of large biomolecules
    anabolism
  9. grouping related enzymes into specific organelles
    compartmentation
  10. requires O2 and produces more ATP per glucose than anaerobic pathways
    Aerobic metabolism
  11. glycolosis occurs in theĀ 
    cytoplasm
  12. reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in the
    mitochondria
  13. a molecule positioned on the high-concentration side of a concentration gradient
    potential energy
  14. a chemical reaction that can proceed in both directions
    reversible reaction
  15. chemical reaction that requires an input of energy
    endergonic
  16. chemical reactions that release energy are
    exergonic
  17. First law of thermodynamics
    energy is neither created nor destroyed
  18. It takes energy tokeep order
    Law of entropy
  19. what is the biproduct of energy
    heat
  20. We don't create energy, we...
    convert energy
  21. The ultimate source of energy for life on the planet comes from
    the sun
  22. The capacity to do work
    energy
  23. Three types of cellular work
    • chemical work
    • transport work
    • mechanical work
  24. this type of cellular work promotes growth, repair, and replacement of cells:

    synthesizes proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
    breaks down carbohydrates
    chemical cork
  25. this type of cellular work moves molecules and ions across membranes via concentration gradients
    transport work
  26. this type of cellular work is related to movement (example: cilia)
    mechanical work
  27. energy of motion
    kinetic energy
  28. stored energy
    potential energy
  29. energy released (exit energy)
    exergonic
  30. energy in - like adding heat to an experiment
    endergonic
  31. These molecules act to lower the activation energy
    Put reactants in the right place at the right time
    enzymes
  32. The sum of all chemical reactions taking place in the body
    metabolism
  33. Disorder in the universe is always increasing
    Law of entropy
    Second law of thermodynamics
  34. Where does ATP synthesis take place?
    mitochondria
  35. enzymes are proteins made up of
    chains of amino acids in the order specified by our genes
  36. vitamins and minerals act with other enzymes and are called
    cofactors or coenzymes
  37. when enzymes transfer electrons from one molecule to another
    oxidation reaction
  38. addition or removal of H2O
    hydrolysis-dehydration
  39. joining of two molecules
    ligation
  40. pathways that breakdown macromolecules to produce energy
    • catabolic metabolism
    • A+B<------A-B
  41. pathways that use energy to build macromolecules
    • anabolic metabolism
    • A+B------>A-B
  42. movement downhill until equilibrium is reached
    law of mass action
  43. cells managing the flow through the pathways based on needs
    regulation

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