BIO 116 Ch. 5

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  1. seroconversion:
    production of antibodies
  2. Is an exposed person ALWAYS infected?
    not always
  3. If someone is exposed to HIV, how are they considered "uninfected"?
    if they have 2 antibody tests (one every 6 months) that both come back negative
  4. 3 main stages of HIV infection
    • 1) Initial infection and asymptomatic period,
    • 2) Initial symptoms appear
    • 3) Immunological damage including full-blown AIDS.
  5. 2 types of HIV acute symptoms:
    • mononucleosis-like illness
    • Encephalopathy
  6. Mononucleosis-like illness from HIV:
    acute/temporary swollen lymph nodes throughout the body
  7. Encephalopathy:
    acute/temporary swelling of brain covering known as the meninges; may also involve swelling/inflammation of brain
  8. How long can the asymptomatic period last up to?
    10 years
  9. asymptomatic period:
    a period of little to no symptoms of the virus
  10. Initial Disease symptoms:
    • wasting syndrome
    • Lymphadenopathy Syndrome (LAS)
    • Neurological Disease
  11. wasting syndrome:
    rapid unexplained loss of 10% weight, super high fevers, sweating at night
  12. Neurological Disease:
    dementia, peripheral nerver damage, spinal cord damage
  13. 2 major consequences when the immune system starts to fail:
    opportunistic infections and cancers
  14. What is the T-help cell count in healthy people?
    1000/cubic millimeter 
  15. How is someone classified as having AIDS?
    a person must be seropositive (making antibodies) and have a T-helper count of below 200 per cubic millimeter
  16. Oral candidiasis or thrush:
    forms white, furry plaques in the mouth due to infection with a fungus
  17. Shingles:
    reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (part of the herpes family of viruses)
  18. Hairy leukoplakia:
    caused by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (causative agent of mononucleosis and a herpes family virus); abnormal, cancer-like swelling of projections called papillae on the surface of the tongue
  19. Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP):
    fungal; immune system fails, the fungus can cause disease that has symptoms including shortness of breath and a dry cough due to cysts that form within the lung tissue
  20. Systemic Mycosis:
    fungal; systemic infecting many organ systems simultaneously and often results in death
  21. Cryptosporidium Gastroenteritis:
    protozoal; diarrhea and this type is very severe in HIV patients including painful cramping and weight loss
  22. Toxoplasmosis:
    protozoal; causes serious and extensive tissue damage, can also cause brain damage
  23. Mycobacterium:
    bacteria; causes a disease similar to TB and severely affects the lungs
  24. Cytomegalovirus (CMV):
    viral; eye infections (may lead to blindness), hormonal imbalance, pneumonia, diarrhea, fever and rash
  25. Kaposi’s Sarcoma:
    cancer; results in tumors of blood vessels
  26. Lymphomas:
    cancer; cancer in lymph nodes
  27. Cervical Cancer:
    cancer; caused by certain strains of an STD called human papilloma virus (HPV) that is also the causative agent of genital warts
  28. What happens to T-helper cells in HIV?
    they die a lot, so much that your immune system can't make enough to replace them all fast enough
  29. Is AZT used alone or with other drugs most of the time?
    usually along with other drugs
  30. AZT drawbacks:
    • High cost ($3500/yr)
    • problem with compliance (must be taken every four hours)
    • side effects including nausea, headaches, sleeplessness and anemia.
  31. Why is AZT not effective on its own?
    HIV is very mutational and can become resistant to it easily
  32. If a pregnant woman is treated with AZT alone, what is the reduced rate of transmission to her child?
  33. Non-nucleoside inhibitors of Reverse Transcriptase (NNRTI’s):
    These inhibitors act by binding directly to the reverse transcriptase to inhibit its function
  34. Protease Inhibitors:
    These inhibitors (there are five) act by binding directly to the protease enzyme that is responsible for directing the maturation of the proteins in newly made viral particles
  35. Fusion Inhibitors:
    This drug acts by interfering with the fusion of the HIV envelope with the cell membrane of the target cell.
  36. combination therapy:
    exposure to more than one inhibitor at a time
  37. HAART:
    combination therapy that combines AZT, 3TC (another nucleoside analog like AZT), and protease inhibitor
  38. Limitations and uncertainties of HAART:
    • it doesn't work for everyone
    • it may become outdated soon
    • can have severe side effects
    • sometimes hard to comply with time schedules
    • VERY expensive
    • may accelerate aging
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BIO 116 Ch. 5
2013-01-21 08:50:39

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