BIO 116 Ch. 5
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production of antibodies
Is an exposed person ALWAYS infected?
If someone is exposed to HIV, how are they considered "uninfected"?
if they have 2 antibody tests (one every 6 months) that both come back negative
3 main stages of HIV infection
- 1) Initial infection and asymptomatic period,
- 2) Initial symptoms appear
- 3) Immunological damage including full-blown AIDS.
2 types of HIV acute symptoms:
- mononucleosis-like illness
Mononucleosis-like illness from HIV:
acute/temporary swollen lymph nodes throughout the body
acute/temporary swelling of brain covering known as the meninges; may also involve swelling/inflammation of brain
How long can the asymptomatic period last up to?
a period of little to no symptoms of the virus
Initial Disease symptoms:
- wasting syndrome
- Lymphadenopathy Syndrome (LAS)
- Neurological Disease
rapid unexplained loss of 10% weight, super high fevers, sweating at night
dementia, peripheral nerver damage, spinal cord damage
2 major consequences when the immune system starts to fail:
opportunistic infections and cancers
What is the T-help cell count in healthy people?
How is someone classified as having AIDS?
a person must be seropositive (making antibodies) and have a T-helper count of below 200 per cubic millimeter
Oral candidiasis or thrush:
forms white, furry plaques in the mouth due to infection with a fungus
reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (part of the herpes family of viruses)
caused by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (causative agent of mononucleosis and a herpes family virus); abnormal, cancer-like swelling of projections called papillae on the surface of the tongue
Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP):
fungal; immune system fails, the fungus can cause disease that has symptoms including shortness of breath and a dry cough due to cysts that form within the lung tissue
fungal; systemic infecting many organ systems simultaneously and often results in death
protozoal; diarrhea and this type is very severe in HIV patients including painful cramping and weight loss
protozoal; causes serious and extensive tissue damage, can also cause brain damage
bacteria; causes a disease similar to TB and severely affects the lungs
viral; eye infections (may lead to blindness), hormonal imbalance, pneumonia, diarrhea, fever and rash
cancer; results in tumors of blood vessels
cancer; cancer in lymph nodes
cancer; caused by certain strains of an STD called human papilloma virus (HPV) that is also the causative agent of genital warts
What happens to T-helper cells in HIV?
they die a lot, so much that your immune system can't make enough to replace them all fast enough
Is AZT used alone or with other drugs most of the time?
usually along with other drugs
- High cost ($3500/yr)
- problem with compliance (must be taken every four hours)
- side effects including nausea, headaches, sleeplessness and anemia.
Why is AZT not effective on its own?
HIV is very mutational and can become resistant to it easily
If a pregnant woman is treated with AZT alone, what is the reduced rate of transmission to her child?
Non-nucleoside inhibitors of Reverse Transcriptase (NNRTI’s):
These inhibitors act by binding directly to the reverse transcriptase to inhibit its function
These inhibitors (there are five) act by binding directly to the protease enzyme that is responsible for directing the maturation of the proteins in newly made viral particles
This drug acts by interfering with the fusion of the HIV envelope with the cell membrane of the target cell.
exposure to more than one inhibitor at a time
combination therapy that combines AZT, 3TC (another nucleoside analog like AZT), and protease inhibitor
Limitations and uncertainties of HAART:
- it doesn't work for everyone
- it may become outdated soon
- can have severe side effects
- sometimes hard to comply with time schedules
- VERY expensive
- may accelerate aging
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