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studies how disease occurs within populations to determine what factors affect the transmission and persistence of the disease
Epidemiologists provide information about –
- -New diseases
- -At-risk populations
- -Causative agents
- -Identify factors/behaviors that increase transmission AND factors/behaviors that aren't related to transmission
- -Evaluate therapies for the disease
- -Guide public policy and health measures
Why can't epidemiologists predict things on an individual?
they focus on general relationships and trends observed in large groups
describe how disease occurs within a population
help to determine the causative agent and explain the disease process itself
the total number of infected people (or proportion) in the population at a given time
how many new cases of infection occur within the population over a particular period of time
What does a correlation suggest?
suggests that there is a statistical association between two factors
How many people in the US are estimated to have HIV?
1.2 million people
What are the risk groups from highest to lowest percentage?
- -Homosexual and Bisexual men = 47% of reported AIDS cases from 1981-2004
- -Heterosexual Injection Drug Users = 26.6% of reported cases
- -Heterosexual Contact with HIV-infected Individuals = 17% of reported cases.
Which 2 ethnicity groups have the highest risk? What are they mostly known for in transmission?
African Americans and Hispanic (they both represent 59% of AIDS cases); injection drug users
What is the most risky way to get HIV?
anal sex (receptive+insertive were about 2x higher than no anal sex)
Can you get HIV through causal contact?
NOPE NOPE NOPE
Can you get HIV from insect bites?
How likely is HIV to advance to AIDS?
How effective is AZT?
How many people worldwide are estimated to having HIV/AIDS?
39 million people
In Africa, where is HIV/AIDS hitting the hardest?
In Africa, which demographic has HIV/AIDS the most?
What other HIV related disease is found in Africa ONLY?
In Asia, what are the most common ways to get HIV?
injection needles and hetero sex
Where is HIV just starting to spread rapidly?
Ukraine and Russia
What are the 3 main subgroups for HIV?
M, N, and O
What areas have what clades?
- US: A
- Europe: B
- Africa: C
- Asia: C and E
What are some differences between clades?
- ability to cause disease
- ability to be detected by the standard ELISA test
- how they respond to different drug regimens