BIO 116 Ch. 6

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BIO 116 Ch. 6
2013-01-21 05:20:28

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  1. Epidemiology:
    studies how disease occurs within populations to determine what factors affect the transmission and persistence of the disease
  2. Epidemiologists provide information about –
    • -New diseases
    • -At-risk populations
    • -Causative agents
    • -Identify factors/behaviors that increase transmission AND factors/behaviors that aren't related to transmission
    • -Evaluate therapies for the disease
    • -Guide public policy and health measures 
  3. Why can't epidemiologists predict things on an individual?
    they focus on general relationships and trends observed in large groups
  4. Descriptive studies:
    describe how disease occurs within a population
  5. Analytical studies 
    help to determine the causative agent and explain the disease process itself
  6. prevalence:
    the total number of infected people (or proportion) in the population at a given time
  7. incidence:
    how many new cases of infection occur within the population over a particular period of time
  8. What does a correlation suggest?
    suggests that there is a statistical association between two factors
  9. How many people in the US are estimated to have HIV?
    1.2 million people
  10. What are the risk groups from highest to lowest percentage?
    • -Homosexual and Bisexual men = 47% of reported AIDS cases from 1981-2004
    • -Heterosexual Injection Drug Users = 26.6% of reported cases
    • -Heterosexual Contact with HIV-infected Individuals = 17% of reported cases.
  11. Which 2 ethnicity groups have the highest risk?  What are they mostly known for in transmission?
    African Americans and Hispanic (they both represent 59% of AIDS cases); injection drug users
  12. What is the most risky way to get HIV?
    anal sex (receptive+insertive were about 2x higher than no anal sex)
  13. Can you get HIV through causal contact?
  14. Can you get HIV from insect bites?  
  15. How likely is HIV to advance to AIDS? 
  16. How effective is AZT?
    VERY effective
  17. How many people worldwide are estimated to having HIV/AIDS?
    39 million people
  18. In Africa, where is HIV/AIDS hitting the hardest?
    southern Africa
  19. In Africa, which demographic has HIV/AIDS the most?
    hetero women
  20. What other HIV related disease is found in Africa ONLY?
  21. In Asia, what are the most common ways to get HIV?
    injection needles and hetero sex
  22. Where is HIV just starting to spread rapidly?
    Ukraine and Russia
  23. What are the 3 main subgroups for HIV?
    M, N, and O
  24. What areas have what clades?
    • US: A
    • Europe: B
    • Africa: C
    • Asia: C and E
  25. What are some differences between clades?
    • ability to cause disease
    • ability to be detected by the standard ELISA test
    • how they respond to different drug regimens