Signal Transdaction 1 - Biological Molecules.txt

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Signal Transdaction 1 - Biological Molecules.txt
2013-01-21 10:21:11
Signal Transduction James Jim Thomas Biology Biochemistry

Signal Transduction
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    • author "Ant"
    • tags "Biology James Jim Thomas Signal Transduction Biochemistry"
    • description "Cards for the Signal Transduction class."
    • fileName "Signal Transdaction 1 - Biological Molecules"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • What is a Condesnsation Reaction?
    • Forming of a bond by the removal of water.
  1. Define: Hydrolysis
    Breaking of a bond using water. Hydro- , -lysis.
  2. Membrane bound organelles are unique to...

    A) Prokaryotes
    B) Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
    C) Bacteria
    D) Eukaryotes
    D) Only Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles. Prokaryotes (Including Bacteria) have "free floating" organelles.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Plasma Mebranes are used in compartmentalization...
    ...That is all.
  4. I have three fatty acids. I mix them together in a sulfric acid solution and heat them in a reflux tube. Despite what I do, I can't get a fatty acid. What ingredient am I missing?
  5. The formal name for a Fat is?
    A Triglyceride
  6. Many triglycerides are Amphipathic. What does Amphipathic mean?

    A) Bonds formed by Condensation reactions (release of water).
    B) They contain a glycerol "head" and a "tail" consisting of fatty acids.
    C) They are both Hydrophillic and Hydrophobic.
    D) They form a blue-green colour in solution.
    C) Many triglycerides have hydrophillic heads and hydrophobic tails. A phospholipid is a good example.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Tail length of a Triglyceride affects two things in Plasma Membranes. What are they?
    • Membrane Width: Longer tails = More space between hydrophillic heads and a thicker bilayer.
    • Interaction with H2O: Longer chains are more hydrophobic.
  8. A kinked unsaturated fat on a triglyceride will...

    A) Cause neat packing by Tangling, therefore leaving no gaps.
    B) Other... (Explain)
    C) Interfere with packing and produce gaps as a result.
    C) Will will interfere with packing and produce gaps as a result.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. What effect does saturation (or unsaturation) of fatty acids have on interaction of water with a triglyceride?
    Unsaturated fats (fatty acids containing double bonds) produce kinks allowing water to get in. The result is more double bonds = Greater Hydrophillia.
  10. An Amphipathic molecule is known as a...
  11. H2O is a key molecule for life. Many if not all organisms have Phospholipid Bilayers to compartmentalize their cellular activity. Would a bilayer be needed if Petrol was instead the key molecule for life? Explain.
    • No, only a single layer of phospholipids would be needed because the hydrophobic tails would orient correctly if the substrate on the intracellular side was hydrophobic also.
    • Organisms use bilayers because often water is both inside and outside the compartment. Therefore two layers are used to hydrophillic heads are always placed outwards.
  12. The four alcohols used in Plasma membranes
    • Serine
    • Choline
    • Inositol
    • Ethanolamine
  13. Alcohols are important in cell membranes because...
    They are comparatively reactive. They allow for condensation reactions and customizability as a result.
  14. What is the "Fuzzy Coat"
    A coat of Carbohydrates (Usually Sugar) on the outer membrane of the cell.
  15. Plants have a "Fuzzy Coat" on their outer membrane. What is this better known as?
    The Cell Wall.
  16. A plasma membrane may consist of four common types of phospholipid. What are they?
    • Sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine.
    • (Notice all but sphingomyelin are named after key membrane alcohols).
  17. Sphingomyelin is different from the other three mammalian phospholipids. How so?
    Sphingomyelin has an NH3 group instead of OH on its "glycerol".
  18. Are micelles and bilayers the same?
    No, a micelle is only one layer of phopholipids, with their tails pointing inwards.
  19. A liposome is...
    A spherical bilayer (vesicle).
  20. When would a bilayer be "black"?
    When it is planar (I.e not in a sphere).
  21. A membrane is "frozen" when it loses fluidity. What might affect the freezing point of a membrane?
    Phospholipid tail length and/or double bonds in the chain.
  22. Cholesterol generally increases membrane fluidity, what else does it do?
    Cholesterol partially immobillizes fatty acid chains in its local environment, reducing membrane permeability.