Carbohydrate Terms

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saitclt
ID:
194185
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Carbohydrate Terms
Updated:
2013-02-06 08:13:24
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CLT2 SAIT BCHM335
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Description:
Organic chemistry terminology related to carbohydrates
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  1. A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone or a compound that yeilds either of these upon hydrolysis
    carbohydrate
  2. A single saccharide molecule that cannot by hydrolyzed to a more simple compound.
    Contains 3-9 carbon atoms
    monosaccharide
  3. two saccharide molecules joined by a glycosidic bond
    disaccharide
  4. carbohydrates that contain 6-10 monosaccharide units
    oligosaccharides
  5. carbohydrates that contain more than 10 monosaccharide units
    polysaccharide
  6. A compound has ___ when it has the ability to rotate the plan of polarized light
    optical activity
  7. An object is ___ when it is NOT superimposable on its mirror image
    chiral
  8. A carbon with 4 different consituents on it
    chiral carbon (or stereogenic center)
  9. compounds with the same molecular formula, but the atoms have a different spatial arrangement and may have different properties
    isomers
  10. molecules with the same molecular formula which differ only in the orientation of groups around one carbon atom (for example D-glucose and D-galactose)
    epimers
  11. A pair of molecules are called ____ when they are non-superposable mirror images
    enantiomers
  12. Stereoisomers of a cyclic monosaccharide that differ only at the anomeric carbon.  Can be alpha or beta configuration
    anomers
  13. D-
    In a Fischer projection, which side of the penultimate carbon is the OH group?
    right
  14. L-
    In a Fischer projection, which side of the penultimate carbon is the OH group?
    Left (L for left)
  15. dextrorotatory means ______ rotation
    clockwise (positive)
  16. levorotatory means ____ rotation
    counter clockwise (-)
  17. Three categories of carbohydrates
    • starch
    • sugar
    • fiber
  18. Three functions of carbohydrates
    • Energy (short term)
    • Supply of carbon building blocks
    • Provides structure to cells and tissue
  19. Is it possible for a carbohydrate to contain nitrogen?
    Yes, some do
  20. simple sugars are an example of __glycerides
    mono
  21. sucrose, lactose, and maltose are examples of __glycerides
    di
  22. glycogen, starches, and cellulose are examples of __glycerides
    poly
  23. How many carbons does aldohexose have?
    6
  24. When you treat an aldehyde with one alcohol molecule this yields...
    a hemiacetal
  25. When you treat a ketone with one alcohol molecule this yields...
    a hemiketal
  26. When an anomeric carbon forms a bond with an OH group from another molecule, this bond is called a _____________ bond, and the resulting molecule is called a __________
    • glycosidic bond
    • glycoside
  27. How can you tell if a carbohydrate is a reducing sugar?
    It will have an alcohol on the anomeric carbon
  28. A 5-membered sugar ring
    furanose
  29. A 6-membered sugar ring
    pyranose
  30. what is the most common form of polysaccharide found in nature?
    cellulose
  31. Homopolysaccharides
    identical repeating units
  32. heteropolysaccharides
    repeating units that aren't all the same
  33. Do polysaccharides have a defined molecular weight?
    No. Why? Because they are not synthesize on a template, so the exact number of repeating units can vary (unlike proteins)
  34. Name two major components of starch.  Which is more branched?
    • Amylose (linear)
    • Amylopectin (branched)

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