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What are Exocrine glands?
Secrete chemicals for elimination, via surface of the skin or body cavity.
What are endocrine glands?
Secrete or release chemicals that are used inside the body. Lack ducts, so they release into surrounding tissue and blood.
What is ADH?
Antidieuretic hormone. Hypothalamus detects the concentration of salt in body fluids and signals the posterior pituitary to increase ADH. That stimulates the renal tubules to reabsorb sodium and water. Also a vasopressor.
What is the hypothalamus?
Small region of the brain that contains several control centers for body functions and emotions. Link between endocrine and nervous system.
What is the pineal gland?
Synthesizes and secretes melatonin, effect on sleep/wake patterns and seasonal functions.
What is the pituitary gland?
Master gland at base of brain that secretes:
- Anterior - hormones -
- Thyroid stimulating
- Melatonin stimulating
- 3 gonadotropic hormones
- Posterior - secretes, but does not produce - they are stored there from the hypothalamus -
What is the thyroid?
Secretes thyroxine which regulates metabolism, rate at which cells consume oxygen and use carbs, fat, and proteins.
Secretes and calcitonin, which maintains normal levels of calcium in the blood.
What is the thymus gland?
Helps immune system identify and destroy foreign intruders.
What are lymphocytes?
White blood cells, from stem cells in the thymus - T lymphocytes, or T cells.
- Killer T cells
- Helper T cells
- Suppressor T cells
What is the parathyroid gland?
Assist in the regulation of calcium. Parathyroid hormone is secreted when calcium levels are low. Stimulates bone dissolving cells to break down bone and release calcium. In kidneys, PTH decreases the amount of calcium in urine.
Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland?
Growth hormone - GH
Thyroid stimulating hormone - TSH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Luteinizing Hormone - LH - ovulation, progesterone production, sperm, testosterone
Follicle stimulating hormone - FSH - Follicle maturation, sperm
Prolactin - milk production
Antidiuretic hormone - ADH - water reabsorption
Oxytocin - contracts uterus during childbirth and stimulates milk production
What is the adrenal gland?
Gland on top of the kidneys. Produces three hormones -
Cortisol - increases metabolic rate, uses fat and protein for energy
Aldosterone - reabsorbs sodium and water from the urine and excretes excess potassium
Epinephrine and norepinephrine - stim sympathetic nervous system through the body, and constricts blood vessels and skeletal muscle to increase blood pressure.
What is the pancreas?
Insulin - excreted when blood glucose is high, increases conversion of glucose to glycogen
Glucagon - Excreted when blood glucose is low. Increase conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Somatostatin - Excreted with increased levels of insulin and glucagon. Decreases insulin and glycogen secretion. Slows absorption of nutrients.
What is diabetes mellitus?
Inability to sufficiently metabolize glucose. Insulin allows blood glucose to enter and nourish cells.
Type 1 - always requires insulin
Type 2 - adult onset, blood glucose levels are elevated.
Too much insulin, too little food, or both.
What is Cushing's syndrome?
Excess of cortisol (increase metabolic rate) production by the adrenal glands.
What is Grave's disease?
Hypertrophy of the thyroid gland and activity increases. Causes goiters.