Medic 14 A&P Ch.1 V2

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Medic 14 A&P Ch.1 V2
2013-01-22 15:25:39
Medic 14

A&P Ch.1 Revisited
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  1. Biology 
    Study of Life
  2. Basic functions of living organisms
    • Responsiveness
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Movement
    • Metabolism
  3. Responsiveness
    irritability and adaptability
  4. Irritability
    Organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment. 
  5. Adaptability
    Organisms make long term changes to adjust to their environment.
  6. Growth
    Increase in size through growth of cells.
  7. Differentiation
    Individual cells become specialized to perform particular functions.
  8. Movement
    Internal and External
  9. Metabolism
    Refers to all the chemical operations that take place in the body. Absorption, Respiration  and excretion.
  10. Absorption
    Absorption of materials from environment  to generate energy. Food and oxygen
  11. Respiration
    Absorption, transport,and use of oxygen by cells
  12. Excretion
    Elimination of unneeded or potentially harmful waste products of metabolic processes.
  13. Anatomy
    Study of internal and external structure and the physical relationship between body parts.
  14. Physiology 
    How living organisms preform vital functions.
  15. Divisions of Anatomy
    • Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic)
    • Surface Anatomy, Surface Anatomy,and Systemic anatomy.
    • Microscopic Anatomy
    • Cytology, and Histology.
  16. Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic)
    Concerns features visible with the unaided eye.
  17. Surface anatomy
    Refers to the study of general form and superficial markings.
  18. Regional Anatomy
    Considers all the superficial and internal features in a specific part of the body, such as the head, neck, or trunk.
  19. Systemic Anatomy
    Considers the structure of the major organ systems which are groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner. 
  20. Microscopic
    Concerns structures that cannot be seen without magnification. 
  21. Cytology
    Analyzes the internal structure of individual  cells.
  22. Histology
    Examines tissues.
  23. Divisons of Physiology
    • Cell Physiology 
    • Special Physiology
    • Systemic physiology
    • Pathological Physiology (pathology) 
  24. Cell Physiology
    Study of the functions of living cells,chemical or molecular, within and between cells.
  25. Special Physiology
    Function of specific organs
  26. Systemic Physiology
    Considers all aspects of the function of the specific organ systems.
  27. Pathology
    Effects of diseases on the organ or organ systems.
  28. Levels of Organization
    • Chemical 
    • Cellular
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ System
    • Organism
  29. Homeostasis
    Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment. 
  30. Homeostatic Regulation
    Refers to the adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostasis 
  31. Components of Homeostatic Regulation.
    • Receptor 
    • Control Center(integration center)
    • Effector
  32. Receptor
    is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus
  33. Control Center(integration center)
    Receives and processes information from receptor  
  34. Effector
    Which responds to the commands of the control center whose activity opposes or reinforces the stimulus. 
  35. Negative Feedback
    A Variation outside the desired range triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation.
  36. Positive Feedback
    The initial stimulus produces a response the reinforces that stimulus.
  37. Positive Feedback Loop
    Involves regulation of a potentially dangerous or stressful process that must be completed quickly.
  38. 11 Organ Systems
    • Integumentary
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive
  39. Integumentary System

    Protects against environmental hazards; Helps control body temperature 

    • Cutaneous Membrane 
    • Epidermis, Dermis
    • Hair Follicles 
    • Hair, Sebaceous Glands
    • Sweat Glands
    • Nails
    • Sensory Receptors
    • Subcutaneous Layer
  40. Skeletal System

    Provides support; Protects tissues; stores minerals; forms blood.

    • Bones,cartilages, and joints
    • Axial skeleton(skull,vertebrae,ribs,sternum,sacrum,cartilages,and ligaments.

    Appendicular skeleton(Limbs and supporting bones and ligaments.

    Bone Marrow
  41. Muscular System

    Allows for locomotion; provides support; produces heat

    • Skeletal Muscles(700)
    • Axial Muscles 
    • Appendicular Muscles
    • Tendons
  42. Nervous system

    Directs immediate response to stimuli; usually  by coordinating the activities of other organ system.

    • Central Nervous system (CNS)
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  43. Endocrine System

    Directs long-term changes in activites of other organ systems

    • Pineal Gland
    • Pituitary Gland
    • Thyroid Gland
    • Thymus
    • Kidneys
    • Pancreas
    • Gonads
    • Testes,Ovaries.
  44. Cardiovascular System

    Transports Cells and dissolved materials including nutrients, wastes and gases.

    • Heart
    • Blood vessels
    • Arteries, Capillaries, Veins
    • Blood
  45. Lymphatic System

    Defends against infection and disease; returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream

    • Lymphatic vessels
    • Lymph nodes
    • Spleen
    • Thymus
  46. Respiratory System
    Delivers Air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood.

    Nasal Cavities,Paranasal sinuses

    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs
    • Alveoli
  47. Digestive System

    Processes Food and absorbs nutrients 

    • Salivary Glands
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Small intestine
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
    • Large Intestine
  48. Urinary System

    Eliminates excess water,salts, and waste products.

    • Kidneys
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
  49. Male Reproductive System

    Produces sex cells and hormones

    • Testes
    • Accessory Organs
    • Epididymis, ductus deferens (sperm duct), Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra
    • External Genitalia
    • Penis, Scrotum.
  50. Female Reproductive System

    Produces sex cells and hormones

    • Ovaries
    • Uterine tubes
    • Uterus 
    • Vagina
    • External Genitalia 
    • Clitoris, Labia
    • Mammary Glands
  51. Cephalon 
    Head (Cephalic)
  52. Cranium
    Skull (Crainial)
  53. Face
  54. Forehead
  55. Orbital or Ocular
  56. Buccal
  57. Nasus
    Nose (nasal)
  58. Oris
  59. Cervicis
  60. Mentis
  61. Cervicis
    Neck (cervical)
  62. Thorascis 
    Thorax, chest, (Thoracic)
  63. Mamma 
    Breast (Mammary)
  64. Axilla
    Armpit (axillary)
  65. Abdomen
  66. Umbilicus 
    Naval (umbilical)
  67. Brachium
    Arm (brachial)
  68. Antecubitis 
    front of elbow (antecubital)
  69. Carpus
    Wrist (carpal)
  70. Pollex 
  71. Digits
    Figners digital or phalangeal
  72. Palm
  73. Pelvis
  74. Groin 
  75. Pubis
  76. Thigh
  77. Patella
    Kneecap (patellar)
  78. Leg
  79. Tarsus
    Anckle (tarsal)
  80. Toes
    Digits (digital or phalangeal)
  81. Hallux 
     the great toe
  82. Pes
    Foot (pedal)
  83. Shoulder
  84. Dorsum
    Back (dorsal)
  85. Loin
  86. Olecranon
    Back of elbow (olecranal)
  87. Gluteus
    buttock (gluteal)
  88. Calf
  89. Calcaneus
    heel of foot (calcaneal)
  90. Planta
    Sole of foot (plantar)
  91. Cephalon(head)
    Structure -> Region
    Cephalic Region
  92. Cervicis(neck)
    Structure -> Region
    Cervical region
  93. Thoracis (Thorax or chest)
    Structure -> Region
    Thoracic region
  94. Abdomen
    Structure -> Region
    Abdominal region
  95. Pelvis
    Structure -> Region
    Pelvic region
  96. Loin(lower back)
    Structure -> Region
    Lumbar Region
  97. Buttock
    Structure -> Region
    Gluteal Region
  98. Pubis(anterior pelvis)
    Structure -> Region
    Pubic Region
  99. Groin
    Structure -> Region
    Inguinal region
  100. Axilla (armpit)
    Structure -> Region
    Axillary region
  101. Brachium(arm)
    Structure -> Region
    brachial region
  102. Antebrachium (forearm)
    Structure -> Region
    Antebrachial Region
  103. Manus(hand)
    Structure -> Region
    Manual region
  104. Thigh
    Structure -> Region
    Femoral region
  105. Leg (anterior)
    Structure -> Region
    Crural Region
  106. Calf
    Structure -> Region
    Sural Region
  107. Pes(foot)
    Structure -> Region
    Pedal Region
  108. Planta (sole)
    Structure -> Region
    Plantar region
  109. Transverse Plane
    Divides the body into Superior and Inferior portions. The cut in this plane is called the transverse section or cross section.
  110. Frontal Plane (coronal Plane)
    Divides into Anterior and Posterior.
  111. Sagittal Plane
    Divides left and right. The cut that divides is the midsagittal section
  112. Anterior
    The front;before
  113. Ventral
    The belly side (equivalent to anterior when referring to the human body)
  114. Posterior
    The Back; Behind
  115. Dorsal
    The back (equivalent to posterior when referring to the human body)
  116. Cranial or Cephalic
    the head
  117. Superior
    Above; at a higher level (in the body,toward the head.
  118. Caudal
    The tail (coccyx in humans)
  119. Inferior
    Below; at a lower level
  120. Medial
    Toward the body's longitudinal axis
  121. Lateral
    Away from the body's longitudinal axis
  122. Proximal
    Toward an attached base
  123. Distal
    Away from the attached base
  124. Superficial 
    At,near,relatively close to the body surface
  125. Deep
    Farther from the body surface
  126. Ventral Body Cavity (coelom)
    Divided by the diaphragm into The thoracic cavity and abdominal pelvic cavity.
  127. Viscera
    Organs found in the Ventral body cavity.
  128. Visceral Layer
    Serous membrane that covers the visceral organs.
  129. Parietal layer
    lines the inner surface of the body wall
  130. Thoracic Cavity
    • 1 Paricardial Cavity
    • 2 Pleural cavities 
  131. Pericardium
    • The serous membrane that covers the heart.
    • Parietal pericardium-> Pericardial cavity ->visceral pericardium
  132. Mediastinum
    The connective tissue of the mediastinum surrounds the pericadial cavity and the heart, large arteries  and veins attached to the heat, and the thymus, trachea, and esophagus.
  133. Pleura
    Serous membrane that lines a pleural cavity
  134. Abdominopelvic cavity
    extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis. subdivided into superior abdominal cavity and inferior pelvic cavity
  135. Peritoneal cavity
    Chamber lined by serous membrane known as the peritoneum.
  136. Abdominal cavity 
     extends from the inferior surface of the diaphragm to the level of the superior margins of the pelvis and contains liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, and most of the large intestine.
  137. Pelvic Cavity 
    Is the ventral body cavity inferior to the abdominal cavity. contains the distal portion of the large intestine, urinary bladder, and various reproductive organs.