A&P

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Marytaylor
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194266
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A&P
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2013-01-31 20:02:43
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Vet Tech
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A&P Vet Tech
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  1. Deals with the form and structure of the body and its parts, what things look like and where they are located.
    Anatomy
  2. Deals with the functions of the body and its parts, how things work and what they do.
    Physiology
  3. Runs down the center of the body lengthwise and divides it into equal left and right halves.
    Median Plane
  4. Runs the length of the body and divides it into unequal left and right parts
    Sagittal Plane
  5. Runs across the body that divides it into cranial and caudal parts that are not necessarily equal.
    Transverse Plane
  6. At right angles to the sagittal plane divides body into dorsal and ventral parts
    Dorsal Plane
  7. Toward the center of the body
    Deep
  8. Toward the surface of the body
    Superficial
  9. List 3 paired structures of the body
    Kidney, lungs and legs
  10. List 3 single structures of the body
    Brain, heart and GI tract
  11. List the 2 main body cavities
    • Dorsal Body Cavities
    • Ventral Body Cavities
  12. What are 2 parts of the dorsal body cavity?
    • Cranium
    • Spinal Canal
  13. What are 2 parts of the ventral body cavity and give examples?
    • Thoracic Cavity - heart, lungs, esophagus and blood vessels
    • Abdominal Cavity - digestive, urinary and reproductive organs
  14. Covers the organs in the thorax
    Pleura
  15. Covers the organs in the abdomen
    Peritoneum
  16. Covers the organs in the pleura and peritoneum
    Visceral
  17. Lines the cavity in the pleura and peritoneum
    Parietal
  18. 5 Basic Life functions to be a living organ
    • Growth
    • Respond to stimuli
    • Seek out and absorb food
    • Eliminate waste
    • Reproduce
  19. Cells that specializes in absorbing nutrients
    intestinal cells
  20. Cells that specialize in carrying oxygen
    Red blood cells
  21. Cells that specialize in organizing and controlling body functions
    Nerve cells
  22. 4 Basic tissues
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Muscle tissue
    • Nervous tissue
  23. What are 3 means of communication in an animal's body?
    • Circulatory
    • Lymphatics
    • Nervous System
  24. 6 functions of the epithelial tissue
    • 1. Protects, covers, and lines
    • 2. Filters biochemical substances
    • 3. Absorb nutrients
    • 4. Provides sensory input
    • 5. Manufactures secretions
    • 6. Manufactures excretions
  25. Give an example of where you find epithelial tissue.
    Lining of the mouth, intestines and urinary bladder
  26. What are the 2 classifications for epithelial tissue 
    Simple and stratified
  27. 2 types of epithelial tissue and examples of where you find it
    • Mucosal - lines the body cavities that open to the outside - mouth, rectum, nose, intestinal tract, eyes
    • Serosal - lines the body cavities that do not open to the outside - pleura and peritoneum
  28. List the 7 types of epithelial tissue and indicate where you would find them.
    • 1. Simple Squamous Epithelium - lines blood vessels, inside the heart, feet (stratified)
    • 2. Cubodial Epithelium - surface of the ovaries, thyroid in portion of secretory gland, lining the ducts of the liver, pancreas, kidney, exocrine ducts and salivary glands
    • 3. Columnar Epithelium - GI tract, uterine tubes and respiratory tracts
    • 4. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium - nasal cavity, trachea, larynyx and bronchi.
    • 5. Stratified Sqaumous Epithelium - lining of the mouth, esophagus, vagina and rectum.
    • 6.Stratified Columnar Epithelium - large ducts of the mammary glands and small portion of the urtehra in some male animals
    • 7. Transitional Epithelium - urinary bladder, urethra and ureters
  29. List the main components of the skeletal system
    Bones and joints
  30. List the main components of the integumentary system
    Skin, hair, nails, hooves
  31. List the main components of the nervous system
    Brain, spinal cord, nerves
  32. List the main components of the Respiratory system
    Lungs and air passages
  33. List the main components of the Cardiovascular system
    Heart and blood vessels
  34. List the main components of the Digestive system
    Intestines, pancreas, stomach
  35. List the main components of the Muscular system
    Skeletal, cardiac and smooth
  36. List the main components of the Sensory system
    Eye and ear
  37. List the main components of the Endocrine system
    Glands and hormone
  38. List the main components of the Urinary system
    Kidneys, ureter, urethra, etc
  39. List the main components of the Reproductive system
    Ovaries and Testes
  40. Maintaining a constant state and keeping the body in equilibrium is called
    Homeostasis
  41. What 2 systems primarily make up homeostasis?
    Endocrine and Nervous System
  42. The study which covers the time from conception to partition is called
    Embryology
  43. What are the 4 areas of development of the zygote
    • Egg
    • Zygote
    • Embryo
    • Fetus
  44. 4 stages of mitotic division of the zygote
    • 1. Zygote
    • 2. Morula
    • 3. Blastula
    • 4. Blastocele
  45. What are 3 areas that help to develop cells, tissues and organs? Provide examples of each.
    • 1. Endoderm - lungs, intestinal tract, liver, heart
    • 2. Ectoderm - skin, hair, hooves, nails, antlers  and the entire nervous system
    • 3. Mesoderm - skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle, kidneys and connective tissue.
  46. What surface faces the lumen or cavity of the epithelia?
    Apical
  47. What surface faces the connective tissue of the epithelia?
    Basal membrane or basement
  48. List 4 common epithelial characteristics
    • 1. They are polar with apical surface facing the lumen/body cavity and basal membrane facing the underlying connective tissue.
    • 2. Lateral surfaces are connected by tight junctions, gap junctions and spot desmosomes called junctional complexes.
    • 3. They are avascular - lack blood vessels or capillaries. They rely on the connective tissue to provide oxygen and nutrients.
    • 4.  They are innervated to provide sensory input. Those that lack nerves = stomach, intestine and cervix.
  49. Cells generally have 1 or 2 junctional complexes. What contains all 3 junctions?
    Urinary bladder
  50. What is the function of the tight junction and where are they found?
    Barrier that prevents passage of substances from apical to basal membrane and vise versa. Must pass through the body of the cell in order to pass through the epithelial layer. 

    Found in Urinary bladder and digestive tracts.
  51. What is the function of the gap junction and where are they found?
    Allow passage of amino acids (ions) and sugars (nutrients) and transport electrical signals from one cell to another (muscle cells)

    Found in intestinal cells, heart and smooth muscle cells.
  52. What is the function of the spot desmosomes and where are they found?
    Primarily act like velcro & anchors to make sure the walls don't separate. Seals and holds the area together.

    Found in skin, heart and uterus (tension & stretch areas)
  53. What is the purpose of the basal membrane?
    It adheres the epithelial tissue to the connective tissue with a meshwork of fibers.
  54. Surface area of the epithelial cells varies describe the characteristics of blood vessels
    Smooth surface
  55. What is the purpose of microvilli and where is it found?
    It increases surface area and is found in the intestines and urinary tract.
  56. What is the purpose of brush borders and where would you find them?
    To catch foreign bodies. Trachea
  57. What are the epithelial surface area characteristics of skin?
    It is smooth and has keratin for waterproofing.
  58. Simple Squamous Epithelia
    Appearance
    Function
    Location
    • Appearance - single layer of hexagon shaped cells
    • Function - line surfaces involved in the passage of gas or blood.
    • Location - inner lining of the lungs, filtration membranes of kidneys, and lining of blood vessels.
  59. Name of simple squamous epithelium in pleural, pericardial, peritoneal cells are called _____________?
    Mesothelium
  60. Name of simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels is called _______________?
    Endothelium
  61. Name of simple squamous epithelium that lines the brain, eye and discreet areas is called _______________?
    Mesenchymal
  62. What are two cells that can go through or between simple squamous epithelial cells and why?
    Oxygen and carbon dioxide because they are lipophilic. 
  63. All blood vessels are lined by a layer of simple squamous epithelium cells called _____________?
    Endothelium
  64. Shock is ____?
    Vasodilitation and reduced cardiac output. During vasodilitation, the cells pull apart allowing plasma and tissue to go out into the tissues which reduces the cardiac output resulting in shock.
  65. Name 3 tissues that have the same simple squamous epithelium appearance but are derived from mesoderm?
    • 1. Endothelium
    • 2. Mesothelium
    • 3. Mesenchymal
  66. Define mucosa and where you find it?
    Lines cavities that open to the outside.

    Found in rectum, esphogus
  67. Define serosa and where you find it?
    Lines cavities that do not open to the outside.

    Found in abdominal cavity and body cavity.
  68. Describe Feline Panleukopenia and Canine Parvoviral
    Enteritis are caused by parvo “cousins” that attack the endothelium. Mortality is high in the young and disabled, as epithelial tissues have trouble renewing themselves. Squamous epithelial cells die and slough in sheets. Therefore animals develop diarrhea, vomit, and can become severely dehydrated in a short time.
  69. Simple Cuboidal Epithelia
    Appearance
    Function
    Location
    • Appearance - tightly packed cube like cells
    • Function - lines ducts that carry enzymes and hormones. Carries hormones and sweat to the surface. 
    • Location - surface of ovaries, ducts of liver, pancreas, kidney and salivary glands.
  70. Simple Columnar Epithelia
    Appearance
    Function
    Location
    • Appearance - elongated and closely packed
    • Function - associated with absorption and secretion.
    • Location - line the gastrointestinal tract, 
    • Ciliated cells found in uterine tubes, uterus, and small bronchi of lungs.
  71. Stratified Squamous Epithelia
    Appearance
    Function
    Location
    • Appearance - Cubodial cells from the base and consists of various layers. As they push to the surface/mature loose their nuclei and cytoplasm and become squamous shaped. 
    • Function - Protects underlying tissue in areas that are prone to friction and chemical stresses.
    • Location - mouth, esophagus, vagina and rectum.
  72. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelia
    Appearance
    Function
    Location
    • Appearance - 2 layers of cuboidal
    • Function - Secretion, absorption and protection
    • Location - Ducts of mammary glands and sweat glands.
  73. In what epithelial structure are goblet cells found. What are their function and provide examples of cells that contain goblet cells
    • Found: Simple columnar (most common) Never seen in simple squamous epithelium, or stratified squamous eputhelium.
    • Function: responsible secretion of enzymes for lubrication and digestion
    • Examples: lung and digestive system.
  74. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia
    Appearance
    Function
    Location
    • Appearance - Appear to be stratified because the nuclei are at different levels
    • Function - Surface area of mucus traps particles.
    • Location - respiratory track and vas deferens (cilia help to push sperm out)
  75. Transitional Epithelia
    Appearance
    Function
    Location
    • Appearance - contains a hog-pog of epithelium types
    • Function - allows for expanding and contracting - ability to stretch
    • Location - Urinary bladder, urethra, ureters
  76. What is a gland?
    A cell or group of cells that can manufacture and discharge secretions.
  77. Describe the production and discharge of secretions?
    Secretions are specialized protein molecules that are produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, packaged into granules by the Golgi apparatus, and then discharged from the cell.

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