IV Fluids

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Author:
swansokj02
ID:
194279
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IV Fluids
Updated:
2013-01-21 17:23:26
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IV fluids
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Week 1
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  1. IV tubing needs to be changed every...
    96 Hours
  2. Intermittent infusion needs to be changed every...
    24 hours
  3. Blood tubing needs to be changed every...
    4 hours
  4. IV dressings need to be changed every...
    • Gauze- 48 hours
    • transparent- 96 hours
  5. Symptoms of overhydration
    • Edema
    • shortness of breath
    • hemoptysis (blood in sputum)
    • JVD
    • cough
    • crackles on auscultation
  6. symptoms of dehydration
    • increasing thirst
    • dry mouth
    • darkening of the urine
    • decrease in urination
    • lower BP
  7. infiltration and symtpoms of
    The leakage of IV drugs from the vein into the surrounding tissue

    • Symptoms:
    • skin around site is blanched, cool to touch, may be painful.
  8. Phlebitis and symptoms of
    inflammation of inner layer of the vein

    • symptoms:
    • redness, tenderness, pain, warmth along course of vein.
  9. The 3 basic types of solutions
    • Isotonic
    • Hypotonic
    • Hypertonic
  10. Isotonic solution
    • possesses about the same osmolarity as serum and other body fluids
    • stays where you put it
    • expands this compartment w/o pulling fluid from other compartments
  11. Examples of isotonic solution
    • normal saline (0.9NS)
    • lactated ringers (LR or RL)
    • 5% dextrose in water (D5W)- pts receiving D5W are susceptible to water intoxication. Once introduced into the circulatory system, glucose is metabolized leaving behind water
  12. Hypotonic Solution
    • osmolarity lower than that of serum
    • body fluid and electrolytes shift out of the blood vessels and into the cells and interstitial space
    • hydrates cells while depleting the circulatory system
  13. Examples of hypotonic solution
    • 0.45% sodium chloride
    • 0.33% sodium chloride
  14. Hypertonic Solution
    • Higher osmolarity than serum
    • fluid and electrolytes are pulled from the intracellular¬†and interstitial compartments into the intravascular compartments
    • used for edema
  15. examples of hypertonic solutions
    • combinations
    • 3-5% NS
    • 5% dextrose in 0.45% Saline (D5W.45NS)
    • Dextrose in normal saline (D5WNS of D5.9NS)
    • 5% dextrose in lactated ringers (D5WLR or D5LR)
  16. electrolyte
    • an element or compound that, when dissolved or dissociated in water or another solvent, seperates into ions that are electrically charged.
    • *measured in mEq/L
  17. Na+
    Normal 135-145 mEq/L

    • Hyponatremia: GI losses, diuretics, burns
    • Hypernatremia: large amt. of salt solutions, diabetes isipidus, water depravation
  18. Na+ signs and symptoms (hyponatremia)
    • apprehension
    • hypotension
    • dizziness
    • abdominal cramping
    • nausea and vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • tachycardia
    • dry mucous membranes
  19. Na+ signs and symptoms (hypernatremia)
    • extreme thirst
    • dry and flushed
    • dry and sticky tongue
    • postural hypotension
    • fever
    • agitation
    • convulsions
    • restlessness
  20. K+
    Normal 3.5-5.0 mEq/L

    • hypokalemia: GI losses, diuretics, polyuria
    • hyperkalemia: Burns or trauma, rapid infusion of blood, K+ substitutes, fluid volume deficit
  21. k+ signs and symptoms (hypokalemia)
    • weakness
    • fatigue, nausea and vomiting
    • decreased bowel sounds
    • irregular pulse
  22. k+ signs and symptoms (hyperkalemia)
    • anxiety
    • dysrhythmias
    • weakness
    • diarrhea
    • cardiac arrest
  23. Ca+
    normal 9.0-10.5 mEq/L

    • hypocalcemia: pancreatitis, chronic renal failure, Vit D deficiency
    • hypercalcemia: osteoporosis, Paget's disease, Osteometastasis
  24. Ca+ signs and symptoms (hypocalcemia)
    • tingling of fingers and mouth
    • hyperactive reflexes
    • positive Trousseaus' sign
    • chvostek's sign
    • muscle cramps
  25. Ca+ signs and symptoms (hypercalcemia)
    • Anorexia
    • nause and vomiting
    • weakness
    • lethargy
    • cardiac arrest
    • kidney stones
  26. Mg++
    normal: 1.3-2.1mEq/L

    hypomagnesemia: alcoholism, GI loss, thiazide diuretics

    hypermagnesemia: Renal failure, excessive oral or parenteral intake
  27. Mg++ signs and symptoms (hypomagnesemia)
    • muscle tremors
    • confusion and disorientation
    • tachycardia
    • hypertension
    • + C&T signs
  28. Mg++ signs and symptoms (hypermagnesemia)
    • decreased depth and rate of respiration
    • hypotension
    • flushing
  29. Cl+
    96-106 mEq/L

    • hypochloremia: vomiting, diuretics
    • hyperchloremia: serum HCO3 levels fall, sodium levels rise
  30. Microdrip
    delivers a little fluid over a long period of time
  31. Macrodrip
    delivers a lot of fluid over a short period of time
  32.  

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