LECTURE 6

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jskunz
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194285
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LECTURE 6
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2013-03-06 21:06:58
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Axial Dev Osteology
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Axial N Dev Osteology
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  1. Long axis of the body runs..
    btwn the vertex of the head and a point equidistant btwn the feet
  2. Bones in the head include
    8 forming the braincase, 14 forming the face, 3 pairs of auditory ossicles, and one hyoid bone
  3. neurocranium
    the cranial vault that surrounds and protects the brain. Formed by 8 bones: the unpaired frontal, occipital, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones and the paired parietal and temporal bones
  4. Viscerocranium
    the skeleton that supports and shapes the face. Formed by fourteen bones: the unpaired vomer and mandible, and the paired maxillae, inferior nasal conchae, zygomatic, palatine, nasal and lacrimal bones
  5. Auditory ossicles
    six total, 3 in each ear. are tiny bones located within the air-filled cavity of the middle ear.
  6. Bones in ear
    Malleus, incus, and stapes. they vibrate (when the tympanic membrane vibrate) and thereby conduct the vibrations to the fluid associated with the inner ear
  7. hyoid bone
    embedded in the muscles at the base of the tongue. Does not articulate with the rest of the skeleton
  8. Skull
    the 22 bones forming the neurocranium and the viscerocranium collectively. Six are single entities and Eight are paired
  9. Orbits
    2, house the eyes. Formed by parts of seven bones and is penetrated posteriorly by 3 neurovascular passageways: optic canal, superior orbital fissure, and inferior orbital fissure
  10. anterior nasal aperture
    transmits the nasal passageways
  11. zygomatic arch
    most obvious landmark on the side of the skull, formed by parts of the temporal and zygomatic bones (check bone)
  12. foramen magnum
    transmits the spinal cord
  13. calvaria
    superior aspect of the skull, consists of parts of four bones: frontal bone, left and right parietal bones, and occipital bone.
  14. Sutural ("wormain") bones
    small "islands" of bone tissue that sporadically occure within the sutures that unite the flat bones of the skull ( especially the lambdoid suture, which is most common)
  15. fontanel
    A "soft spot" in the skull of a neonate occurring along sutures where adjacent flat bones are incompletely ossified.  Six are typically present: unpaired anterior and posterior fontanels, and paired anterolateral and posterolateral fontanels
  16. division of the cranial cavity
    divided by two pairs of ridges. Anterior pair is formed by the sphenoid bone and the posterior pair is formed by the petrous part of the temporal bone.  These ridges separate the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae. Posterior cranial fossa is largest and deepest, in which the foramen magnum is located
  17. frontal bone
    unpaired, forms most of the brow (frons), roof of the nasal cavity, and the superior aspects of the orbits.
  18. squama frontalis
    largest portion of the frontal bone, forms the brow and the anterior part of the temple.
  19. frontal sinuses
    air-filled, mucous membrane lined cavities within the frontal bones, communicate with the nasal cavity
  20. parietal bones
    left and right, form the middle half of the top of the cranial vault, meet along the median plane to form the jagged sagital suture
  21. occipital bone
    unpaired, forms the posterior aspect of the skull as well as the posterior part of it's inferior portion. transmits the spinal cord through the foramen magnum
  22. occipital condyles
    Left and right, on each side of the foramen magnum, articulate with the first cervical vertebra
  23. temporal bones
    paired, form the lateral parts of the skull around the ears as well as part of the central portion of the floor of the cranial cavity. Each temporal bone is divided into 3 major portions: squamous, tympanic, and petrous
  24. sphenoid bone
    forms part of the anterior floor of the cranial cavity as will as a small portion of the lateral aspect of the skull
  25. ethmoid bone
    unpaired, contributes to the formation of both orbits and forms part of the nasal septum that divides the nasal cavity
  26. facial bones
    14 total, 6 paired and two single
  27. zygomatic bones
    the facial bones inferlateral to the orbits which form the "check-bones"
  28. maxillae
    left and right, form most of the anterior portion of the skull below the orbits. "upper jaw", each consist of frontal, zygomatic, palatine, and alveolar processes
  29. alveolar processes
    support all the superior teeth in sockets
  30. dental alveoli
    sockets which house the superior teeth
  31. palatine bone
    paired, positioned just posterior to the maxillae.
  32. nasal bones
    small, paired. form the skeletal support for the bridge (dorsum) of the nose
  33. vomer
    unpaired, forms large part of the inferior portion of the osseous part of the nasal septum
  34. lacrimal bone
    left and right (paired) form parts of the medial wall of each orbit
  35. mandible
    unpaired bone in which all the inferior teeth are embedded. consists of a horizontally oriented body and two vertically oriented rami
  36. vertabral body
    the large solid portion which is located anteriorly
  37. vertebrae
    include the vertebral body, vertebral arch, and some processes
  38. intervertebral discs
    separates the vertebrae (except between C1 and C2), join the bodies together, allow limited movement and act as shock absorbers
  39. vertebral arch
    the posterior portion of each vertebra that surrounds the spinal cord. Each arch is formed by left and right pedicles and by left and right laminae which fuse together and the vertebral body to complete the encasement around the spinal cord
  40. vertebral foramen
    the large passageway formed
  41. vertebral canal
    the collective vertebral foramina
  42. intervertebral foramina
     the paired opening on the side of the vertebral column that transmit the spinal nerves.  These foramina are formed by the juxtaposition of the superior and inferior vertebral notches of the adjacent vertebral arches
  43. inferior and superior vertebral notches
    indentations in the arches of the adjacent vertebrae which forms each intervertebral foramen
  44. processes of a single vertebrae
    spinous (single, palpable), pair of transverse, and 4 small articular
  45. spinous process
    single, palpable process which projects posteriorly from the arch of a vertebra
  46. transverse process
    paired, extends laterally from the arch of a vertebra
  47. articular prosesses
    4 on each vertebra (left/right superior and left/right inferior), project from the arch and articulate with those of adjacent vertebrae
  48. 5 groups of vertebrae
    cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
  49. cervical vertebrae
    7, found within the neck
  50. first cervical vertebra
    also known as C1 or atlas, atypical because it has no spinous process and no body, articulates with the occipital bone of the skull
  51. second cervical vertebra
    also known as C2 or axis, has especially broad spinous process, most obvious feature is large superior projection from it's body, called the dens, which represents the "lost" body of the atlas
  52. prominent vertebra
    the vertebra at the base of the neck with the most palpable spinous process, usually C7 but may be C6 or T1
  53. transverse foramina
    penetrates the transverse processes of all cervical vertebrae, transmit the vertebral nerves and vessels
  54. thoracic vertebrae
    12, articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs. they have relatively long spinous processes, short bodies, and short transverse processes, have costal foveae on their bodies & most have it on their transverse processes for articulation with the tubercles of the ribs
  55. lumbar vertebrae
    5, have stout bodies reflecting the larger percentage of body weight they support, located in lower back, characterized by well-developed transverse processes
  56. sacral bone
    also called sacrum,created when sacral vertebrae fuse, articulates with the ilium to form a slightly movable but solid connection btwn the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton of the inferior limbs.
  57. sacral vertebrae
    5 (sometimes only 4) fuse to form a solid bony mass the sacral bone
  58. sacrum base and apex
    base (superior end) is much wider than the apex (inferior end)
  59. median sacral crest
    formed by the spinous processes of the fused sacral vertebrae
  60. coccygeal vertebrae
    four, fuse to form the coccyx
  61. coccyx
    made of 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae, wider superiorly and tapers inferiorly
  62. vertebral column
    the vertebrae and intervening intervertebral discs; the spine. formed by 26 bones; 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar, as well as the os sacrale and os coccyx. should be straight when viewed posterior and anterior, but has 4 curves when viewed laterally
  63. curves of spine
    cervical and lumbar curves are convex anteriorly, thoracic and pelvis curves are concave anteriorly
  64. vertebral formula
    • C7T12L5S5Cy4
    • *sometimes Co is used in place of Cy
    • *Note that the adult has 26 vertebrea, because the sacrum and coxx are counted as one bone each since they fuse together
  65. sternum
    unpaired flat bone that is palpable on the midline of the anterior aspect of the thoracic wall. consists of three segments which fuse to form a single bony mass: manubrium, body and xiphoid process
  66. manubrium
    the wider superior portion of the sternum, articulates with the left and right clavicles at indentations called the clavicular notches
  67. jugular notch
    the median indentation btwn and superior to the clavicale notches
  68. clavicular notches
    notches on the manubrium where the sternum articulates with the clavicles
  69. costal notches
    found alongside the manubrium and body are 7 indentations where the costal cartilages of the ribs join the sternum
  70. body of the sternum
    starts where the second costal cartilages join the sternum at the fused junction of the manubrium with the sternal body. This location is marked by the sternal angle
  71. xiphoid process
    directly inferior to the body of the sternum, remains cartilaginous until the third year and doesn't fuse with sternum until later in life
  72. Ribs
    12 pairs in most people, first pair is quite short, next 6 pairs get progressively longer, last 5 get progressively shorter
  73. Head of the ribs
    rounded end which articulates with the costal foveae on the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae. Heads of most ribs articulate with two adjacent vertebrae, and have divided articular surfaces.  Heads of ribs 1, 10, 11 and 12 articulate only with the correspondingly numbered thoracic vertebra
  74. costal angle
    portion of the body that makes the tightest bend
  75. true rib
    a rib whose costal cartilage makes direct contact with the sternum.  The first seven ribs on each side are true ribs
  76. false rib
    a rib whose costal cartilage does not make direct contact with the sternum.  The lower five ribs on each side are false ribs, and the last two pairs of false ribs whose costal cartilages end blindly in the soft tissues of the body wall are (also) called floating ribs
  77. costal arch
    the costal cartilages of ribs 8, 9 and 10 on each side attach to the costal cartilage of rib 7, forming the costal arch.  is the palpable inferior aspect of the rib cage
  78. intercostal spaces
    22, the spaces btwn adjacent ribs and costal cartilages.  These spaces are occupied by intercostal muscles, vessels, and nerves.
  79. two different mechanisms bones develop
    endochondral ossification (also called intracartilaginous ossification) and intramembranous ossification
  80. Endochondral ossification
    bone tissue formation that involves an initial hyaline cartilage model. Endochondral ossification is a multi-step process involving mineralization and then resorption of the cartilage before bone tissue is formed. method by which a majority of bones develop and primary method long bones get their length
  81. primary center of ossification
    the first area in a developing bone where four steps are completed and is typically near the center of the bone.  Subsequent separate areas that ossify in the same bone are called secondary centers of ossification
  82. epiphyseal cartilages
    a hyaline cartilage "growth plate" in an immature bone.  A developing long bone typically has an epiphyseal cartilage at each end of it's diphysis.  Also called physes
  83. metaphyses
    in long bones, the portions of the diaphysis adjacent to the epiphyseal cartilages, most metabolically active area's in immature bones
  84. epiphyseal lines
    radiographic evidence of recent mineralization of an epiphyseal cartilage. epiphyseal lines become less distinct with time and ultimately disappear altogether
  85. Intramembranous ossification
    direct osteogenesis occurring within a thin sheet of connective tissue proper (a "membrane) (occurs in the periosteum) All bones utilize at least some intramembranous ossification on their outer surfaces as they grow in diameter, and some flat bones use this form of ossification exclusively
  86. fractures
    involve the cracking or breaking of a bone and are classified clinically into several dozen descriptive types
  87. comminuted fracture
    a fracture in which the bone has been broken into a number of pieces
  88. avulsion fracture
    fracture which involves the traumatic tearing away of a bone fragment at the site of attachment of a tendon or ligament
  89. factors that can weaken a bone and predispose it to a fracture that might not otherwise occur
    disuse atrophy, demineralization related to menopause, senility, and to hypersecretion of the parathyroid hormone
  90. "reducing" a fracture
    proper term is setting it, physician places the broken bones back into alignment
  91. fixation of a fracture
    refers to the stabilization that is added to prevent movement during the healing process. includes casts, pins, wires, plates, screws, etc...
  92. delayed union of a fracture
    refers to a fracture that takes an exceptionally long time to heal
  93. pseudoarthroses
    false joints which develop from a fracture that never heals.
  94. pelvimetry
    measurements of the diameters of the pelvis

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