Chemistry Midterm Review 1

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Chemistry Midterm Review 1
2013-01-21 19:23:27

Everything I can think of
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  1. How is Atomic Mass calculated?
    • Using mass + relative abundance (it is a weighted average)
    •                   % Abundance   Mass 
    • 19.78% of B-10   .1978      x  10 = 1.978
    • 80.22% of B-11   .8022      x  11 = 8.8242
    •                                          10.8022 amu
  2. The phrase; Conservation of energy
    Balanced equation.
  3. What table is used for solubility guidelines?
    Table F
  4. When is gas most soluble in water?
    Low temperature and high pressure (like soda. It has the most bubbles when it's cold and sealed). 

  5. What table is used for finding activity of metals?
    Table J. 

    Also: Nature at bottom and salt production top. 
  6. Metalloids
    B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, At
  7. What is gram formula mass?
    Molar mass - the mass in grams of 1 mole of that substance.

    1 mole of water contains 6.02 x 10^23 molecules of water. Molar mass of water is 18 g/mole.  (6.02 times the number of moles of atoms)
  8. Where is STP found?
    Table A.
  9. Electron Configuration example

    1s2    2s2  2p6    3s2  3p2

    2    -       8      -       4
  10. What can be concluded from the Rutherford Gold-foil Experiment, and what was done?
    Alpa particles were shot through a sheet of thin gold foil. Most particles went through the foil, but some were deflected.

    • -small, dense, positively charged nucleus
    • -mostly empty space
  11. What is one kind of error that can account for an apparent violation of the Law of Conservation of Energy?
    Loss of heat to surroundings.
  12. Multiple balloons contain equal volumes of gas at STP.
    According to the Kinetic Molecular Theory, why would balloons expand if they were heated?
    Kinetic energy rises as temperature goes up, so there is increased movement between molecules. -> Increased collisions on balloon walls -> increased pressure causing the balloons to expand.  
  13. To find the number of partially occupied orbitals...
    Write out the configuration.
  14. Explain how bright lone spectra are produced.
    An electron gains energy while in the ground state, which causes it to move up an energy level. Eventually, the electron loses this energy and moves from the excited state back to it's ground state. This energy is released in photons that create a unique spectrum of light for each element. 
  15. How can elements be identified using the bright-line spectra
    Observing the colors and pattern of the bright line spectra and matching it to the identical element. 
  16. Which statement describes the elements in period ___?
    All have valence electrons in the same valence shell.

    ___ occupied principal energy levels.
  17. What table is used to find solubility?
    Table F.
  18. What are the nucleons of an atom?
    Protons and neutrons
  19. Possible Characteristics of covalent bonds:
    • Low melting point
    • Nearly insoluble in H2O
    • Non-conductor of electricity
    • Relatively soft solid

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