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Amino Acid Structure
- • Amino acids are the “building blocks” of protein
- • Amino acids and thus proteins contain nitrogen, carbon,oxygen & hydrogen. A few contain sulfur.
- • Proteins are organic compounds
- • Each of the 20 amino acids has a different variable side chain
- • Amino acids combine together to make a protein
What are the 9 Essential amino acids?
- 1. Histidine
- 2. Isoleucine
- 3. Leucine
- 4. Lysine
- 5. Methionine
- 6. Phenylalanine
- 7. Threonine
- 8. Tryptophan
- 9. Valine
What are the 11 Nonessential amino acids?
- 1. Alanine
- 2. Arginine
- 3. Asparagine
- 4. Aspartic acid
- 5. Cysteine
- 6. Glycine
- 7. Glutamic acid
- 8. Glutamine
- 9. Proline
- 10. Serine
- 11. Tyrosine
- • Complete
- • High Biological Value
- • High Quality
- • Incomplete
- • Low Biological Value
- • Low Quality
The protein quality classification is based on the proportions and the amounts of the essential amino acids present in the protein.
High Quality Proteins:
Contain all the essential amino acids, and are high biological value proteins or complete proteins.
• Complete Proteins come from animal sources such as: milk,yogurt, meats, eggs,and cheese.
Low Quality Proteins:
Lack one or more essential amino acids, and are low biological value proteins or incomplete proteins.
• Incomplete Proteins are plant sources of proteins such as: vegetables,legumes (dried beans),nuts, seeds, tofu, and grains.
• Low quality protein sources can be combined in such a way that the essential amino acids that are limiting in one protein are supplied by another protein.
• The combined proteins can provide all of the essential amino acids of a high quality protein source.
- Nuts & Seeds
*Combine any 2 groups for complementation
• 1st used for tissue repair &maintenance
• Then used for energy, 4Cals/gram
Protein: Dietary Recommendations
- • Is based on body weight.
- • The adult DRI for protein is 0.8 grams of high quality dietary protein per kilogram body weight per day.
- • 10-35% of Calories should come from protein (this is the AMDR).