gmat sc

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gmat sc
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  1. aggravate v. aggravating
    (worsen) v. (irritating)
  2. known as v. known to be
    (named) v. (acknowledged as)
  3. loss of v. loss in
    (no longer in possession of) v. (decline in value)
  4. mandate v. have a mandate
    (command) v. (have authority from voters)
  5. native of v. native to
    (person from) v. (species that originated in)
  6. range of v. ranging
    (variety of) v. (varying)
  7. rates of v. rates for 
    (speed or frequency of) v. (prices for)
  8. rise v. raise
    (general increase) v. (a bet or salary increase in american english)
  9. try to do v. try doing
    (seek to accomplish) v. (experiment with)
  10. impel v. impale 
    ((to force) v. (to pierce it with a sharp instrument)
  11. farther v. further
    (refers only to distance) v. (refers to degree of something other than distance)
  12. prepositional phrases
    a group of words headed by a preposition (i.e. of mice, in Zambia, to the store); modify or describe other parts of the sentence; thus, you can generally eliminate them to find the subject
  13. subordinate clauses
    clauses that begin with connecting words such as who or which; cannot stand alone as sentences; always attached to a main clause; since they do not contain the main subject or verb, they are frequently used as middlemen or warmups
  14. present participles
    -ing forms derived from verbs
  15. past participles 
    -ed and -en forms derived from verbs
  16. and vs. additive phrases
    many other words and phrases besides and can "add" to a subject (i.e. along with Polly, in addition to surgery, as well as the mayor);  unlike and, additive phrases do not form compound subjects; singular subjects followed by additive phrases remain singular subjects
  17. either... or & neither... nor
    find the noun nearest to the verb, and make sure that the verb agrees in number with this noun (e.g. neither the coach nor thplayers ARE going to the beach, neither the coach nor the coach IS going to the beach); note that when the words either or neither are in a sentence alone (without or or nor), they are considered singular and take only singular verbs
  18. collective noun
    • a noun that looks singular (it usually does not end with an -s) but can refer to a group of people or objects 
    • people: agency, army, audience, class, committee, crowd, orchestra, team
    • item: baggage, citrus, equipment, fleet, fruit, furniture
    • in some rare circumstances, collective nouns can be considered plural (e.g., when you emphasize the individual actors, not their unity); however, on the gmat, collective nouns are almost always considered singular and therefor require singular verb forms
  19. schools subjects (e.g., mathematics), as well as some activities (e.g., aerobics) and diseases (e.g., diabetes) are...
    SINGULAR
  20. pronouns
    words that replace other nouns or pronouns 
  21. indefinite pronouns
    • not specific about thing thing to which it refers; usually singular
    • singular:
    • anyone anybody, anything
    • each, every (as pronouns)
    • everyone, everybody, everything
    • either, neither (may require a plural verb if paired with or/nor)
    • no one, nobody, nothing
    • someone, somebody, something
    • whatever, whoever
  22. SANAM pronouns
    • 5 indefinite pronouns that can be either singular or plural depending on the context of the sentence
    • Some, Any, None, All, More/Most
    • the noun object of the Of-phrase can help you determine the number of subject
    • Some of the money WAS stolen from my wallet. (money is singular)
    • Some of the documents WERE stolen from the bank. (documents is plural)
    • Don't apply the Of-phrase mechanically. None of and any of followed by a plural noun can be singular
    • Any of these women IS a suitable candidate for marriage to my son
    • Note that not one is always singular.
  23. each and every
    • each or every requires a singular verb form; the same is true for any subject preceded by the word each or every
    • every dog and cat HAS paws
    • each of these shirts IS pretty
    • they each ARE great tennis players - here, the plural subject they requires the plural verb form are
  24. THE number
    • singular verb
    • the number of hardworking students in this class IS quite large
  25. A number
    • plural verb
    • a number of students in this class ARE hard workers
  26. idiomatic expressions that designate quantities or parts, such as a number of
    • provide the exception to the rule that the subject cannot be in a  prepositional phrase
    • other examples include fractions and percents
    • half of the pie IS blueberry, and half of the slices ARE already gone
  27. majority, minority, and plurality
    • either singular or plural
    • the majority of the students in this class ARE hard workers
    • in the Senate, the majority HAS coalesced into a unified voting block
  28. subject phrases and clauses
    • always singular
    • sometimes the subject of a sentence is an -ing phrase or even a whole clause --> singular
    • having good friends IS a wonderful thing
    • whatever they want to do IS fine with me
  29. I want to retire to a place where i can relax and i pay low taxes
    • i want to retire to a place where i can relax and WHERE i can pay low taxes
    • repeating the where eliminates ambiguity
    • the subordinators do not have to be identical
    • there are many people who speak english but whose parents do not
  30. ralph likes both those who are popular and who are not
    ralph likes both those who are popular and THOSE who are not
  31. Lists with And
    • if you join 2 clauses with and, you can put an optimal comma before the and.  doing so is especially recommended when the clauses are long, independent, or both
    • e.g. i really like candy apples, AND i ead them often
  32. linking verbs
    • to be: is,are, was, were, am, been, be, being
    • other linking verbs: appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, represent, remember  seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn
  33. parallel markers
    • words that link or contrast items and that force those items to be parallel
    • e.g. and, both/and or either/or, not/but, not only/but also, rather than, from/to
  34. pronoun
    a word that takes the place of a noun, so that we don not have to repeat that noun elsewhere in the sentence
  35. antecedent
    the noun the pronoun is referring to
  36. the antecedent must exist
    • the antecedent to which you want to refer must actually exist in the sentence as a noun
    • watch out for nouns used as adjectives, they cannot be antecedents of pronouns
  37. the antecedent & pronoun must make sense together 
    • always check that the antecedent makes sense in place of the pronouns
    • the error in meaning is subtle but unmistakable
  38. the antecedent & pronoun must agree in number
    the number of the pronoun must match the number of its antecedent
  39. the deadly five: it, its, they, them , their
    • aka third person personal pronouns
    • whenever you see one of these five pronouns, find the antecedent and check its viability (is the antecedent sensible and in agreement with the pronoun?)
  40. demonstrative pronouns
    • this, that, these, and those
    • you may use any of these pronouns as adjectives in front of nouns
    • you may also use that or those to indicate a "New Copy" or copies of the antecedent (e.g. the money spent by her parents is less than THAT spent by her children)
    • Note that the two pots of money are NOT the same. One pot of money is spent by the parents; another pot of money, spent by the children, is the New Copy.
    • In contrast, when you use it, they, or other personal pronouns, you mean the same actual thing as the antecedent (e.g. the money spent by her parents is more than IT was expected to be)
    • do not use this or these in place of nouns. a sentence such as this is great is unacceptably vague. 
    • also, do not use that or those in place of nouns, unless you modify that or those to make them New Copies. instead, use it, they, or them
  41. what about pronoun ambiguity
    • every pronoun in a well-written sentence should clearly refer to one antecedent
    • if the intended antecedent of a single pronoun is clear (e.g., by virtue of parallelism and meaning), and if there is no other reasonable antecedent, then don't worry if there is an unreasonable antecedent somewhere else in the sentence
  42. Subject cases
    • subject pronouns can be the subjects of sentences
    • I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who
    • e.g. they arrived late
  43. object cases
    • object pronouns can be the objects of verbs or prepositions
    • me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom
    • e.g. no one saw them or talked to them
  44. possessive cases
    • possessive pronouns indicate ownership or a similar relation
    • my/mine, your/yours, his, her/hers, its, our/ours, their/theirs, whose
    • e.g. their presence were unnoticed
    • nouns in possessive case (with 's or s') are often poor antecedents
  45. modifier
    describes someone or something in the sentence
  46. adjective modifier
    • modifies only a noun or pronoun
    • follow linking verbs such as feel
    • Wrong: James Joyce is Max's SUPPOSEDLY Irish ancestor.
    • Right: James Joyce is Max's SUPPOSED Irish ancestor.
  47. adverb modifier
    • modifies almost anything but a noun or pronoun
    • often modifies a verb
    • can also describe an adjective, another adverb, a preposition, a phrase, or even a whole clause
    • Wrong: Max's grandmother is his SUPPOSED Irish ancestor.
    • Right: Max's grandmother is his SUPPOSEDLY Irish ancestor.
  48. adjectives that have been observed alternating with their corresponding adverbs (in -ly) in related GMAT problems
    corresponding, frequent, independent, rare, recent, seeming, separate, significant  supposed, and usual
  49. noun modifiers
    • phrases or clauses that modify nouns or pronouns
    • act like long adjectives
  50. noun modifiers example -
    type: adjective
    • before noun: The LAZY cat took a nap.
    • after noun: The cat, LAZY from overeating, took a nap.
  51. noun modifiers example - 
    type: preposition
    after noun: The cat ON the couch took a nap.
  52. noun modifiers example -
    past participle
    • before noun: The TIRED cat took a nap.
    • after noun: TIRED from chasing mice, the cat took a nap.
  53. noun modifiers example -
    present participle without commas
    • before noun: The SLEEPING cat took a nap.
    • after noun: The cat SLEEPING on the rug is named Sue.
  54. noun modifiers example -
    relative pronoun
    • after noun:
    • The grey cat, WHICH loves tuna, took a nap.
    • The cat THAT lives next door is noisy.
    • The person WHO lives next door is noisy.
    • The city WHERE I live is noisy.
  55. noun modifiers example -
    another noun (appositive)
    • a noun used to modify another noun
    • before noun: A LOVER of mice, my cat hunts night and day.
    • after noun: The cat, a TABBY raised on a farm, took a nap.
  56. touch rule (for noun modifiers)
    a NOUN and its MODIFIER should TOUCH each other
  57. misplaced modifier
    • the modifier is next to a different noun
    • wrong: Jim biked along an old dirt road to get to his house, which cut through the woods.
    • right: To get to his house, Jim biked along an old dirt road, which cut through the woods.

  58. dangling modifier
    • the noun we want to modify is not even in the sentence
    • wrong: resigned to the bad news, there was no commotion in the office
    • wrong: there was no commotion in the office, resigned to the bad news
    • right: resigned to the bad news, the office workers made no commotion
  59. verb modifiers
    • modify verbs
    • answer questions about the verb, such as "how", "when," "where," "why," etc.
    • unlike a noun modifier, a verb modifier does not have to touch the subject
    • a present participle (-ing form) at the beginning of a sentence is often made to be dangling (these forms are technically verb modifiers)
    • wrong: using the latest technology, the problem was identified
    • wrong: the problem was identified, using the latest technology
    • right: using the latest technology, the engineer identified the problem
    • right: the engineer identified the problem, using the latest technology
    • verb modifiers can be placed more freely than noun modifiers, which must generally touch the modified noun
    • Wrong: The nameless symphony was at last performed, decades after it was composed, yesterday.
    • Right: The nameless symphony was at las performed yesterday, decades after it was composed.
  60. avoid long sequences of modifiers that modify the same noun
    • wrong: george carlin, both shocking and entertaining audience across the nation, who also struggled publicly with drug abuse, influence and inspired a generation of comedians
    • better: both shocking and entertaining audiences across the nation, George Carlin, who also struggled publicly with drug abuse, influenced and inspired a generation of comedians
    • best: both shocking and entertaining audiences across the nation, George carlin influence and inspired a generation of comedians, even as he struggled publicly with drug abuse
  61. possessive nouns (nouns that end in 's or 's) - subj. modifiers
    • Misplaced modifiers sometimes appear in sentences that have possessive nouns
    • Wrong: Unskilled in complex math, Bill's score on the exam was poor.
    • Right: Unskilled in complex math, Bill did not score well on the exam.
  62. abstract nouns ("development") - subj. modifiers
    • same rule as other nouns: modifiers that touch them should be intended to modify them
    • Wrong: Only in the past century has origami's development, a ceremonial activity invented millennia ago, into a true art form taken place.
    • Right: Origami-a ceremonial activity invented millennia ago-has developed into a true art form only in the past century.
  63. "who" vs "whom" - subj. relative pronouns
    • "who" and "whom" must modify people
    • "who" is used as the subject of the verb in a relative clause, whereas "whom" is used as the object of the verb or a preposition
    • Wrong: The security guard WHO we met was nice
    • Right: The security guard WHOM we met was nice
  64. relative pronouns
    • often introduce noun modifiers
    • which that who whose whom where when
  65. "which" - subj. relative pronouns
    must modify things
  66. "that"  subj. relative pronouns
    • cannon modify people
    • Wrong: The scientists THAT made the discovery were rewarded.
    • Right: The scientists WHO made the discovery were rewarded.
  67. "whose" - subj. relative pronouns
    • can modify either people or things
    • e.g. the town whose water supply was contaminated
  68. "which" and "whom" - subj. relative pronouns
    • sometimes follow prepositions
    • e.g. the canal through which water flows; the senator for whom we worked.
  69. "that" or "whom" - sub. relative pronouns
    • can be dropped when the modified noun is the object of the modifying clause
    • Right: The movie THAT we watched last Friday was scary
    • Right: The movie we watched last Friday was scary
  70. "where" - subj. relative pronouns
    • can be used to modify a noun place, such as area, site, country, or Nevada. "Where" cannot modify a "metaphorical" place, such as condition, situation, case, circumstances, or arrangement-in these cases, use "in which" rather than "where"
    • Wrong: We had an arrangement WHERE he cooked and I cleaned.
    • Right: We had an arrangement IN WHICH he cooked and I cleaned.
  71. "when" - subj. relative pronouns
    can be used to modify a noun event or time, such as period, age, 1987, or decade.  In these circumstances, you can also use "in which" instead of "when."
  72. essential modifiers
    • provide necessary information
    • used to identify the noun (out of many possibilities) or to "attach" the modifier to the noun from that point onward
    • e.g. The mansion PAINTED RED is owned by the Lees
  73. non-essential modifiers
    • provide extra information
    • you do not need this information to identify the noun, since it is already identified in some other way
    • e.g. This mansion, RECENTLY PAINTED RED is owned by the Lees
  74. Rules for essential and non-essential modifiers
    • Put COMMAS between NON-ESSENTIAL modifiers and their nouns
    • Put NO COMMAS between ESSENTIAL modifiers and their nouns
    • use WHICH (and commas) if the modifier is non-essential
    • use THAT (and no commas) if the modifier is essential
    • non-essential: This mansion, WHICH HAS BEEN RECENTLY PAINTED RED, is owned by the Lees.
    • essential: The mansion THAT HAS BEEN PAINTED RED is owned by the Lees.
    • non-essential: This mansion, FOR WHICH I YEARN, is owned by the Lees.
    • essential: The mansion FOR WHICH I YEARN is owned by the Lees.
    • other relative pronouns, such as "who," can be used in essential or in non-essential modifiers
  75. verb modifiers example -
    adverb
    • before verb:
    • FREQUENTLY, I walk to the store
    • I FREQUENTLY walk to the store.
    • after verb: I walk to the store FREQUENTLY.
  76. verb modifiers example -
    preposition
    • before verb: ON Mondays, I walk to the store.
    • after verb: I walk to the store ON Mondays.
  77. verb modifiers example -
    subordinator
    • subordinators include words such as because, although, if, unless, while, so that,while, and so on.  These words begin subordinate clauses, which cannot stand alone as sentences, but rather are attached to main clauses.
    • before verb: WHEN my car is broken, I walk to the store.
    • after verb: I walk to the store WHEN my car is broken.
  78. very modifiers example - 
    present participle with commas
    • before verb: WHISTLING "Beat It," I lifted the weight.
    • after verb: I lifted the weight, WHISTLING "Beat It."
    • make sure that these modifiers have a sensible subject in the sentence - I was whistling "Beat It," I was concentrating, I wanted to free my leg.
  79. verb modifiers example -
    preposition + simple gerund
    • before verb: BY CONCENTRATING, I lifted the weight
    • after verb: I lifted the weight BY CONCENTRATING
    • make sure that these modifiers have a sensible subject in the sentence - I was whistling "Beat It," I was concentrating, I wanted to free my leg.
  80. very modifiers example -
    infinitive of purpose
    • before verb: TO FREE my leg, I lifted the weight.
    • after verb: I lifted the weight TO FREE my leg.
    • make sure that these modifiers have a sensible subject in the sentence - I was whistling "Beat It," I was concentrating, I wanted to free my leg.
    • infinitive of purpose can be used with unnamed agents in passive-voice sentences: The weight was lifted to free my leg
    • An Infinitive of Purpose needs to indicate the purpose of someone - the boulder rolled to free my leg  implies nonsensically that the boulder wanted to free my leg.
  81. Which vs. the Present Participle -ing
    • use WHICH only to refer to the noun immediately preceding it-never to refer to an entire clause
    • wrong: Crime has recently decreased in our neighborhood, WHICH has led to a rise in property values.
    • right: The recent decrease in crime in our neighborhood has led to a rise in property values.
    • right: Crime has recently decreased in our neighborhood, leading to a rise in property values.
    • -ing can modify nouns directly (e.g., the changing seasons), can modify verbs and their subjects (e.g., I lifted the weight, whistling), can even modify an entire clause as above - this use of the -ing form works best when you want to express the result of the main clause.
  82. simple tenses
    • often used to express "eternal" states or frequent events
    • SIMPLE PRESENT: Sandy PLAYS well with her friends.
    • SIMPLE PAST: Sandy PLAYED well with her friends yesterday.
    • SIMPLE FUTURE: Sandy WILL PLAY well with her friends tomorrow.
  83. progressive tenses
    • emphasize the ongoing nature of an action
    • use the verb "to be" and the present participle (-ing form)
    • PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: Sandy IS PLAYING soccer.
    • PAST PROGRESSIVE: Sandy WAS PLAYING soccer yesterday.
    • FUTURE PROGRESSIVE: Sandy WILL BE PLAYING soccer tomorrow.
  84. cat: general definitions
    present progressive or simple present?
    • Use simple present
    • Wrong: Cherenkov radiation is light that particles ARE EMITTING when they ARE TRAVELING faster than the effective speed of light in any medium.
    • Right: Cherenkov radiation is light that particles EMIT when they TRAVEL faster than the effective speed of light in any medium.
  85. cat: future actions
    present progressive or simple future?
    • Use simple future to indicate future actions
    • Wrong: Quentin IS MEETING Harvey for lunch tomorrow.
    • Right: Quentin WILL MEET Harvey for lunch tomorrow.
  86. State Verbs 
    -know or signify
    • Verbs that express general states do not normally take progressive forms
    • Wrong: This inscription IS SIGNIFYING the emperor's birth
    • Right: This inscription SIGNIFIES the emperor's birth
  87. Make tenses reflect meaning
    • Right: He IS thinner now because he WENT  on a strict diet six months ago.
    • Right: She WAS PLAYING with her friends when the babysitter ARRIVED.
    • -the action was playing takes place in the background; arrived is the interrupting foreground event
    • Right: She PLAYED with her friends when the babysitter ARRIVED.
  88. Present Perfect
    • Use for actions that started in the past but continue into the present, or remain true in the present
    • The Present Perfect indicates either continued action or continued effect of a completed action up the the present 
    • = HAVE/HAS + Past Participle
    • p.p. of a regular verb, add -ed
    • p.p. of irregular verbs, such as go or see, gone, seen
    • Right: This country HAS FORCED strict immigration laws for thirty years
    • Right: They HAVE KNOWN each other since 1987.
  89. Action is definitely over, but its effect is still relevant to the present moment - subj. present perfect example
    • Right: The child HAS DRAWN a square in the sand
    • the child is no longer drawing a square but the square must still be here somehow.
    • if the square has disappeared, use Simple Past
    • Right: The child DREW a square in the sand, but the ocean ERASED it.
    • Right: The child DREW a square in the sand, but the ocean HAS ERASED it.
    • Wrong: The child HAS DRAWN a square in the sand, but the ocean HAS ERASED it.
  90. With "since"
    -subj. Present Perfect example
    • use Present Perfect to indicate an action or effect that continues to the present time
    • Wrong: Since 1986 no one BROKE that world record
    • Wrong: Since 1986 no one BREAKS that world record
    • Right: Since 1986 no one HAS BROKEN that world record
    • For the same reasons, use the PP with "within the past..." or "in the last..." phrases
    • In contrast, a time phrase that does not include the present prevents the use of the PP. Use Simple Past instead.
    • Wrong: Veronica HAS TRAVELED all over the world in 2007.
    • Right: Veronica TRAVELED all over the world in 2007.
    • Right: Veronica has traveled all over the world
  91. -ing forms, infinitives or subordinate clauses - subj. Present Perfect
    • used to clarify an ambiguous sequence in time
    • for instance, "when" can mean either "at the same time" or "after."
    • Right: She WILL PAY you when you ASK her. (no present perfect) = she will pay you at the same time as you ask her, or maybe just after.
    • Right: She WILL PAY you when you HAVE TAKEN out the garbage. (Present Perfect) = she will pay you clearly after you take out the garbage and have proven it.
  92. Past Perfect
    • If two actions in a sentence occurred at different times in the past, we often use the Past Perfect tense for the earlier action and Simple Past for the later action
    • = HAD + Past Partciple
    • Right: The film HAD STARTED by the time we ARRIVED at the theater.
    • Right: The teacher THOUGHT that Jimmy HAD CHEATED on the exam.
    • earlier past action (had started, had cheater)
    • later past action (arrived, thought)
    • Do no use PP simply for "long ago" without a later past moment
    • do not always use the PP for earlier actions; use PP only to clarify or emphasize a sequence of past events; the earlier event should someone have a bearing on the context of the later event
    • Right: Antonio DROVE to the store and BOUGHT some ice cream.
    • a sequence of verbs with the same subject does not require PP; Use Simple Past
  93. "and" or "but" clauses - subj. Past Perfect
    • do not require the Past Perfect as a general rule
    • Right: Antonio DROVE to the store, and Cristina BOUGHT some ice cream
    • Likewise, the words "before" and "after" indicate the sequence of events clearly to make the PP unnecessary 
    • Right: Laura LOCKED the deadbolt before she LEFT for work.
  94. Later past event does not need to be expressed with a Simple Past tense verb - example
    • you could just use a date or another time reference
    • Right: By 1945, the United States HAD BEEN at war for several years.
    • You can make a tricky sentence in which the first clause expresses an early action in Simple Past.  Then, a second clause expresses a later action in Past Present to indicate continued effect (by a still later past time).
    • Right: The band U2 WAS just one of many new groups on the rock music scene in the early 1980's, but less than ten years later, U2 HAD fully ECLIPSED its early rivals in the pantheon of popular music.
  95. Perfect Tenses: only when necessary
    • do not use the perfect tenses when the simple tenses will do
    • Wrong: Joe LEARNED about an epoch in which dinosaurs HAD WALKED the earth.
    • Right: Joe LEARNED about an epoch in which dinosaurs WALKED the earth
  96. Tense Sequence
    • avoid mixing Present tense with Conditional tense (formed by combining "would" with the base form of the verb)
    • avoid mixing Past tense with Future tense
    • Present + Future OR Past + Conditional
    • Right: The scientist BELIEVES that the machine WILL BE wonderful
    • Right: The scientist BELIEVED that the machine WOULD BE wonderful.
    • Wrong: The scientist BELIEVES that the machine WOULD BE wonderful.
    • Wrong: The scientist BELIEVED that the machine WILL BE wonderful.
  97. The Subjunctive Mood
    • occur in two special situations:
    • (1) Unlikely or unreal conditions (usually after "if" or a similar word)
    • (2) Proposals, desires  and requests formed with certain verbs and the word "that"
    • corresponds to: the Hypothetical Subjunctive and the Command Subjunctive
  98. The Hypothetical Subjective (aka Past Subjunctive)
    • indicate unlikely or unreal conditions
    • occurs after if, as if, or as though.
    • Right: To overcome my fear of germs, I will think about disease as though it WERE harmless.
    • The speaker does not believe that disease actually is harmless.  By using the HS "were," the speaker reveals that he or she thinks that disease is not harmless.
    • For the verb "to be," the form "were" is ALWAYS used
  99. If... Then Constructions
    • Sentences that use "if" do not always use the Hypothetical Subjunctive
    • Right: IF you study diligently, [THEN] you will score highly.
    • Right: You will score highly IF you study diligently.
  100. five common patterns of if... then sentences
    • (1) General Rule with no uncertainty
    • IF Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she BECOMES ill.
    • IF Present, THEN Present.
    • Pattern equivalent to "whenever."
    • (2) General Rule with some uncertainty
    • IF Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she MAY BECOME ill.
    • IF Present, THEN Can or May
    • (3) Particular Case (in the future) with no uncertainty
    • IF Sophie EATS pizza tomorrow, THEN she WILL BECOME ill.
    • IF Present, THEN Future.
    • Another possibility for the Particular Case (in the present) is Present Perfect: If Sophie HAS EATEN pizza, then she WILL BECOME ill.
    • (4) Unlikely Case (in the future)
    • IF Sophie ATE pizza tomorrow, THEN she WOULD BECOME ill.
    • IF Hypothetical Subjunctive, THEN Conditional
    • "could" can be used to indicate improbability as well
    • (5) Case That Never Happened (in the past)
    • IF Sophie HAD EATEN pizza yesterday, THEN she WOULD HAVE BECOME ill.
    • If Past Perfect, THEN Conditional Perfect
    • The helping verbs "would" and "should" should NEVER go in the "if" part of the sentence
  101. The Command Subjunctive
    • used with certain Bossy Verbs, such as "require" or "propose"
    • Bossy Verbs tell people to do things
    • ex. The agency REQUIRED that Gary BE ready before noon.
    • ex. We PROPOSE that the school board DISBAND.
    • "be" and "disband" are in the Command Subjunctive mood
    • aka Bare Form of the verb: the infinitive (to be, to disband) without the "to." 
    • like the Simple Present, with (1) no -S on the end for third person singular (that the school board DISBAND, not DISBANDS) and (2) the form of the verb "to be" is always "be," not is, are, or am.
  102. The subjunctive construction with a Bossy Verb
    • Bossy Verb + THAT + subject + Command Subjunctive
    • ex. We PROPOSE THAT the school board DISBAND.
    • Wrong: We PROPOSE the school board DISBAND ("That" is not optional.)
    • Wrong: We PROPOSE THAT the school board DISBANDS.
    • Wrong: We PROPOSE THAT the school board IS TO DISBAND.
    • Wrong: We PROPOSE THAT the school board WILL DISBAND.
    • Wrong: We PROPOSE THAT the school board SHOULD DISBAND.
  103. "want" - subj. Command Subjunctive (Bossy Verbs)
    • cannot use the Command Subjective, but rather an infinitive (to + the bare form)
    • Right: The vice-president WANTS her TO GO to the retreat.
    • Wrong: The vice-president WANTS THAT she GO to the retreat
  104. Common Verbs that take ONLY the Command Subjunctive when indicating desire
    • demand, dictate, insist, mandate, propose, recommend, request, stipulate, suggest
    • ex. We demand THAT HE BE here.
    • Note: Propose can take an infinitive when there's no second subject: The attorneys proposed to meet the following day.
  105. Verbs that take ONLY the Infinitive - subj. command subjunctive
    • advise, allow, forbid, persuade, want
    • We allow HIM TO BE him
  106. Verbs that take EITHER the Command Subjunctive OR the Infinitive
    • ask, beg, intend, order, prefer, urge, require (pay particular attention to require)
    • ex. We require THAT HE BE here.
    • ex. We require HIM TO BE here.
  107. "prohibit" - Command subjunctive
    • A few Bossy Verbs, most notably prohibit, take other constructions altogether:
    • Right: The agency PROHIBITED Gary FROM WORKING on weekends.
  108. The Command Subjunctive can also be used with nouns derived from Bossy Verbs, such as a demand or a request. - example
    Right: His demand THAT he BE paid full severance was not met.
  109. The Command Subjunctive is possible with "It is X," in which X is an adjective, such as "essential," that conveys urgency - example
    • Right: It is essential THAT Gary BE ready before noon.
    • Other adjectives conveying urgency include advisable, crucial, desirable, fitting, imperative, important  mandatory, necessary, preferable, urgent, and vital
  110. Avoid the use of the Command Subjunctive after "whether"
    • Wrong: I like ice cream, WHETHER it BE chocolate, vanilla, or any other flavor.
    • Right: I like ice cream, WHETHER is IS chocolate, vanilla, or any other flavor.
  111. active voice
    • the subject of the sentence performs the action
    • ex. The hungry students ATE the pizza
  112. passive voice
    • the subject of the sentence has an action performed on it by someone or something else
    • ex. the pizza WAS EATEN by the hungry students
    • formed with a form of the verb to be (in this case, was), followed by the past participle (eaten)
    • do no use other verbs besides be, such as get, to form the passive voice
    • Wrong: The pizza GOT EATEN by the hungry students
    • Wrong: The pizza must GET EATEN today.
  113. whoever actually performs the action in the sentence may follow the verb in a phrase headed by the preposition by.
    • use "by" only for the actual doers of the action
    • use "through" or "because of" when you want to describe any instruments or means, which might be awkward or nonsensical subject in active voice.
    • Wrong: The pizza WAS accidentally EATEN BY a quirk of fate.
    • Wrong: A quirk of fate accidentally ate the pizza.
    • Right: THROUGH quirk of fate, the pizza WAS accidentally EATEN.
  114. If a "by" phrase is force upon you (perhaps it's not underlined), then you must use the passive voice
    • Wrong: News of the moon landing repeated around the world BY people of all ages, all races, and all religions.
    • Lacking a full verb, the sentence is fragment.  Because the "people" repeating the news are mentioned by a "by" phrase that you can't get ride of, fix the sentence using the passive voice:
    • Right: News of the moon landing WAS repeated around the world BY people of all ages, all races, and all religions.
    • Only Transitive Verbs (verbs that take direct objects) can be written in the passive voice.  For instance, you can eat something, so something can be eaten.  Verbs that do not take direct objects should never be written in the passive voice.
    • Wrong: The aliens WERE ARRIVED on Neptune in the 20th century.
    • Right: The aliens ARRIVED on Neptune in the 20th century.
    • "arrive' does not take a direct object.  you can't "arrive" something.  So something can't be "arrived"
  115. Passive is sometimes longer or more awkward but still grammatically correct
    • Passive: It HAS BEEN DECIDED by Jason that he will not attend college.
    • Active: Jason HAS DECIDED not to attend college.
    • Both are right
    • Passive: It HAS BEEN DECIDED by Jason that he will not attend college next fall. - Correct
    • Active: Jason HAS DECIDED next fall not to attend college. - Incorrect
    • The future time phrase "next fall" must stay away from the Present Perfect verb "has decided."
  116. You do not have to make active or passive voice parallel throughout a sentence
    Right: The shuttle launch TOOK place flawlessly and WAS SEEN on television.
  117. Most important comparison signals
    like, unlike, as, and than
  118. Comparison signals
    like, unlike, more than, less than, faster than, different from, in contrast to/with, as, as (adj.) as, as much as, as little as, as fast as, the same as
  119. like vs as - subj. comparison
    • like is a preposition
    • LIKE must be followed by nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases (never put a clause or a prepositional phrase after like; clause contains a working verb, one that can be the main verb in a sentence)
    • Right:LIKE her brother, Ava aced the test.
    • Note that "like" can be followed by gerunds (-ing forms used as nouns) - LIKE swimming, skiing is great exercise.
    • As can be either proposition (appearing with a noun) or a conjunction (appearing with a clause)
    • Wrong: LIKE her brother DID, Ava aced the test.
    • Right: AS her brother DID, Ava aced the test
    • The words "her brother did" form a clause ("did' is a working verb)
  120. Comparison must be logically parallel
    • Wrong: Frank's build, LIKE his brother, is broad and muscular
    • Right: Frank's build, LIKE his brother's, is broad and muscular.
    • We can also use the word "that" to stand for "build"; if the first noun were plural, we would use "those" instead
    • Right: Frank's build, LIKE that of his brother, is broad and muscular
    • Right: Frank's toes, LIKE THOSE of his brother, are short and hairy
    • We can change the first term and rephrase the sentence accordingly
    • Right: Frank, LIKE his brother, has a broad and muscular build.
  121. Comparisons must be structurally parallel
    • Wrong: I like to run through forests more than I enjoy walking through crowds.
    • Right: I like running through forests MORE THAN walking through crowds
  122. Omitted words - subj. comparisons
    • Omit words in second part of a comparison (possessive nouns)
    • ex. my car is bigger than Brian's [car]; my toes are longer than Brian's [toes].
    • you can also omit units, verbs, and even whole clauses from the second term, as long as there is no ambiguity
    • Right: Whereas I drink 2 quarts of milk a day, my friend drinks 3 [quarts]
    • Right: I walk faster than Brian [walks]
    • Right: I walk as fast now as [I walked] when I was younger
    • in general, you should put in the omitted words or appropriate Helping Verbs (such as be, do, and have) only if you need to remove ambiguity.
    • Right: Vishal eats more carrots than donuts ("donuts" must be the object)
    • Wordy: Vishal eats more carrots than HE DOES donuts
    • Ambiguous: I like cheese more than Yvette (Yvette could be subject or object)
    • Right: I like cheese more than Yvette DOES (=than Yvette likes cheese)
    • Right: I like cheese more than I DO Yvette (=than I like Yvette)
    • Do not throw out an answer choice simply because of an unnecessary Helping Verb in the second term of a comparison
    • Right: Apples are more healthy to eat than caramels
    • Right: Apples are more healthy to eat than caramels ARE
  123. Comparative and Superlative Forms
    • When comparing two things, use the Comparative Form of an adjective or adverb
    • When comparing more than two things, use the Superlative Form of an adjective or adverb.
    • Comparative: She is SHORTER than her sister (add -er)
    • Superlative: She is the SHORTEST of her five siblings (add -est)
    • Do not compare an adverb that ends in -ly by changing the ending to -er.  Instead, add "more"
    • Wrong: Adrian runs QUICKLY. He runs QUICKER than Jacob.
    • Right: Adrian runs QUICKLY.  He runs MORE QUICKLY than Jacob.
    • however, some adverbs that do end in -ly are made into comparatives by adding -er
    • Right: Adrian runs FAST. He runs FASTER than Jacob.
    • Do not use a comparative adjective unless you have a "than" in the sentence
    • Wrong: With winter coming  I will have HIGHER energy bills.
    • Wrong: I will have HIGHER bills OVER last year.
    • Right: I will have HIGHER bills THAN last year.
  124. Idioms
    • expressions that have unique forms
    • ex. They tried to reach the summit and succeeded in doing so, not They tried in reaching the summit and succeeded to do so.
    • (1) SPOT the suspect idiomatic expression - compare answer choices to find the core words and all variations
    • (2) EXTRACT the various forms of the idiom and put them into simpler sentences that you can easily compare - present the simplest versions to your ears
    • (3) REPLACE the corrected idiom in the sentence and confirm that it works
  125. ABILITY - subj. idioms
    • Right: I value my ABILITY TO SING.  
    • (note: I CAN SING is preferred to I HAVE THE ABILITY TO SING.)
    • Wrong: I value my ABILITY OF SINGING
    • Wrong: I value my ABILITY FOR SINGING
    • Wrong: I value the ABILITY FOR me TO SING
  126. ALLOW - subj. idioms
    • Right: The holiday ALLOWS Maria TO WATCH the movie today (= permits)
    • Right: Maria WAS ALLOWED TO WATCH the movie
    • Right: The demolition of the old building ALLOWS FOR new construction (= permits the existence of)
    • Wrong: The holiday ALLOWED FOR Maria TO WATCH the movie
    • Wrong: The holiday ALLOWED Maria the WATCHING OF the movie.
    • Wrong: The holiday ALLOWS THAT homework BE done (or CAN BE done)
    • Wrong: Homework is ALLOWED FOR DOING BY Maria
    • Wrong: The ALLOWING OF  shopping TO DO (or TO BE DONE).
  127. AND - subj. idioms
    • Right: We are concerned about the forests AND the oceans
    • Right: We are concerned about the forests, the oceans, AND the mountains
    • Right: We work all night, AND we sleep all day (note the comma before AND)
    • Suspect: We are concerned about the forests AND ALSO the oceans.
    • Suspect: We work all night AND we sleep all day (link 2 clauses with comma + AND)
    • Wrong: We are concerned about the forests, ALSO the oceans.
  128. AS - subj. idioms
    • Right: AS I walked, I became more nervous (=during)
    • Right: AS I had already paid, I was unconcerned (=because, since)
    • Right: AS we did last year, we will win this year (=in the same way)
    • Right: JUST AS we did last year, we will win this year (=in the same way)
    • Right: AS the president of the company, she works hard (=in the stage of being)
    • Right: My first job was an apprenticeship AS a sketch artist
    • Right: AS PART OF the arrangement  he received severance
    • Suspect: AS A PART OF the arrangement, he received severance.
    • Wrong: My first job was an apprenticeship OF  a sketch artist
    • Wrong: They worked AS a sketch artists (needs to agree in number)
    • Wrong: WHILE BEING a child, I delivered newspaper
    • Wrong: AS BEING a child, I delivered newspaper
    • Wrong: WHILE IN childhood, I delivered newspapers
  129. main clause
    • correct sentence always contains at least one main clause
    • group of words that can stand on its own as a complete sentence
    • contains both a subject and a verb
    • does not being with a subordinating conjunction such as "because" or "if"
  130. run-on sentence
    • using a comma to join two main clauses
    • Wrong: I need to relax, I have so many things to do!
    • Right: I need to relax, BUT I have so many things to do!
  131. Coordinating Conjunctions
    • Together with a comma, a coordinating conjunction can link tow main clauses to form a grammatical sentence
    • and, but, or, for, nor, yet, & so
  132. And - subj. coordinating conjunctions
    • most important coordinating conjunction
    • whenever you see an "and" after a comma, check for two possibilities: (1) a list (apples, grapes, AND pears) or (2) two main clauses (I like apples, AND she likes grapes)
  133. linking a main clause to a fragment with "and" after a comma - example
    • Wrong: The term "Eureka," meaning "I have found it" in ancient Greek and famously uttered by Archimedes, AND ever since then, scientists have exclaimed the same word upon making important discoveries.
    • The capitalized "and" links a fragment (The term "Eureka," followed by two modifiers) to a main clause (ever since then, scientist..).  
    • To fix, make fragment into a main clause as well
    • Right: The term "Eureka," meaning "I have found it" in ancient Greek, WAS famously uttered by Archimedes, AND ever since then, scientists have exclaimed the same word upon making important discoveries.
  134. Subordinators
    • kind of connecting word
    • create subordinate clause  which can in turn attach to a main clause with a comma
    • although, because, before, after, since, when, if, unless, that, though while
    • Right: I need to relax, BECAUSE i have so many things to do!
    • ALTHOUGH new data from the Labor Department indicate that producer prices rose rapidly last month, some analysts contend that the economic slowdown in the euro zone and in Asia will stem the rise in commodity prices, lessening inflationary pressures in the United States.
  135. Use only one connecting word at once
    • Wrong: ALTHOUGH I need to relax, YET I have so many things to do!
    • Right: ALTHOUGH I need to relax, I have so many things to do!
    • Right: I need to relax, YET I have so many things to do!
  136. Make sure clauses are connected by a sensible connecting word
    • Wrong: She is not interested in sports, AND she likes watching them on TV.
    • Right: She is not interested in sports, BUT she likes watching them on TV.
    • Right: ALTHOUGH she is not interested in sports, she likes watching them on TV.
  137. Be on a lookout for sentences that join a main clause to something that should be a clause, but is not actually a clause - example - subj. connecting word
    • Wrong: Citizens of many countries are expressing concern about the environmental damage caused by the widespread release of greenhouse gases may be impossible to reverse.
    • "may be impossible to reverse" has no subject
    • change the preposition "about" to the subordinator "that"
    • Right: Citizens of many countries are expressing concern THAT the environmental damage caused by the widespread release of greenhouse gases may be impossible to reverse.
    • Right: Citizens of many countries are expressing concern about the environmental damage caused by the widespread release of greenhouse gases, DAMAGE THAT may be impossible to reverse <--absolute phrase
  138. comma - subj; connecting punctuation
    • signals and separators of modifiers, items in a list, and other sentence elements
    • non-essential modifiers are set off by commas
    • essential modifiers are not separated by commas (e.g. this car, purchased last year, is a Buick contains a non-essential modifier, but The car purchased last year is a Buick contains an essential modifier)
  139. Do not use comma before "and" to separate two verbs that have the same subject - subj. connecting punctuation, comma
    • Either eliminate the comma or add as subject to the second verb, creating a second main clause
    • Wrong: Earl walked to school, AND later ate his lunch.
    • Right: Earl walked to school AND later ate his lunch
    • Right: Earl walked to school, AND HE later ate his lunch
  140. Comma by itself cannot connect two complete sentences (main clauses) - example
    • Wrong: Earl walked to school, he later ate his lunch
    • A strange kind of two-part sentence is legal: The bigger they are, the harder they fall
  141. semicolon
    • connects two closely related statements
    • each statements must be able to stand alone as an independent sentence
    • Wrong: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; doing everything together
    • second part of sentence cannot stand on its own.  Therefore, the two parts may not be connected by a semicolon
    • Right: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; they do everything together.
  142. if it seems that the author originally meant to subordinate one part to the other, you must preserve that intent - subj; semicolon
    • Right: the dam has created dead zones,WHERE fish have disappeared
    • Wrong: the dam has created dead zones; fish have disappeared
    • In the second example, the writer seems to be saying that fish all over the world have disappeared
    • first example is appropriately limited to the dead zone
  143. The semicolon is often followed by a Conjunctive Adverb or other transition expression, such as "however, therefore, or in addition"
    • not true conjunctions like "and" so you must use semicolons, not commas, to join the sentences
    • Wrong: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable, THEREFORE, we never see them apart.
    • Right: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; THEREFORE, we never see them apart
  144. a minor use of semicolon to separate items that themselves contain commas
    • Wrong: I listen to Earth, Wind & Fire, Wow, Owls, and Blood, Seat & Tears
    • Right: I listen to Earth, Wind & Fire; Wow, Owls; and Blood, Sweat & Tears.
  145. Colon
    • provides further explanation for what comes before it
    • you should be able to insert the word "namely" or "that is" after the colon
    • what comes before the colon must be able to stand alone as a sentence
    • what comes after the colon does not have to be able to stand alone
    • Wrong: I love listening to: classical, rock, rap, and pop music
    • Right: I love listening to many kinds of music: classical, rock, rap, and pop.
  146. whatever needs explanation should be placed as close to the colon as possible
    • Worse: Three factors affect the rate of a reaction: concentration, surface area, and temperature
    • Better: The rate of a reaction is affected by three factors: concentration, surface area, and temperature
  147. you can put a main clause after a colon as well
    • key is that this clause must explain what precedes the colon-perhaps the entire preceding clause
    • Right: on January 1, 2000, the national mood was completely different from what it would become just a few years later: at the turn of the century, given a seemingly unstoppable stock market and a seemingly peaceful world, the country was content
  148. dash
    • use as an emphatic commas, semicolon, or colon
    • should use dashes to separate an appositive from an item in a list
    • Right: My three best friends-Danny, Jimmy, and Joey-and I went skiing. (if you used commas in this sentence, you might think that seven people were going skiing)
    • Unlike colon, the dash does not need to be immediately preceded by the part needing explanation.
    • Right: Post-MBA compensation for investment bankers tends to surge far ahead of that for management consultants-by tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of dollars a year. (by tens.. a year) explains the word "far" in the phrase "far ahead"
    • you cannot really go wrong with a dash!
  149. rule #1: words used for countable things vs words used for uncountable things - subj. quantity
    • counting test: 
    • For "hat": one hat, two hats, three hates.  (works, hat is countable)
    • For patience: one patience (?), two patiences (?, stop. this does not work; not countable
  150. countable modifiers, uncountable modifiers
    • MANY hats, MUCH patience
    • NOT MANY hats, NOT MUCH patience
    • FEW hats, LITTLE patience
    • FEWER hats, LESS patience
    • FEWEST hats, LEAST patience
    • NUMBER of hats, AMOUNT of patience
    • FEWER THAN 10 hats, LESS THAN a certain AMOUNT of patience
    • NUMEROUS hats, GREAT patience
    • MORE NUMEROUS hats, GREATER patience
    • more most, enough, and all work with both countable (plural) and uncountable (singular) nouns
  151. use "less" in countable or uncountable items?
    • do not use less with countable items (error: 10 items or less; should be 10 items or fewer)
    • Wrong: There were LESS Numidian kings than Roman emperors.
    • Right: There were FEWER Numidian kings than Roman emperors.
  152. unit nouns: dollars or gallons
    countable or uncountable?
    • represents uncountable quantities: money, volume (you can count money, of course, but you cannot count the noun money: one money (?), two moneys (?), stop)
    • use "less"
    • Right: We have LESS THAN twenty dollars
    • If we write We have FEWER THAN twenty dollars, we mean the actual pieces of paper
  153. rule #2 words used to relate two things vs words used to relate three or more things - subj. quantity
    • use comparative forms of adjectives and adverbs (better, worse, more, less) to compare two things or people
    • use superlative forms (best, worst, most, least) to compare three or more things or people
    • use "between" only with two things or people
    • use "among" for three or more things or people
    • Wrong: I mediated a dispute BETWEEN Maya, Logan, and Kalen.
    • use AMONG isntead
  154. rule #3: The Number or Number Of versus A Number or The Numbers Of
    • the number of is singular, and a number of is plural
    • Right: THE NUMBER of dogs IS greater than the number of cats
    • Right: A NUMBER of dogs ARE chasing away the cats
    • the numbers of is almost always incorrect.  stick to the expression the number of
    • wrong: THE NUMBERS of dogs in Montana IS steadily increasing
    • Right: THE NUMBER of dogs in Montana IS steadily increasing
    • numbers is possible in a few contexts.  If you wish to make a comparison use "greater than," not "more than"
    • Wrong: The rare Montauk beaked griffin is not extinct; its NUMBERS are now suspected to be much MORE than before
    • Right: use GREATER than
  155. rule #4: increase and decrease vs. greater and less - subj. quantity
    • increase and decrease express the change of one thing over time
    • greater and less signal a comparison between two things
    • Right: The price of silver INCREASE by ten dollars
    • Right: The price of silver is five dollars GREATER than the price of copper
    • watch out for redundancy with the words increase and decrease
    • Wrong: The price of silver FELL by more than 35% DECREASE
    • Right: The price of silver DECREASED by more than 35%
    • Right: use FELL

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