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organic compounds and soluble in fat
Categories of Lipids:
- 1. Triglycerides
- 2. Phospholipids
- 3. Sterols
- Energy Yield: Fats provide 9 Calories/gram.
- – Fats are the only type of lipid that the body can convert to ATP or produce energy from.
– Fats are the most Calorically Dense
energy producing nutrient.
Caloric density: Refers to the
Calories yielded per weight of the substance.
– Triglycerides (dietary fats) provide 9 Calories per gram while protein and carbohydrate provide 4 Calories per gram and alcohol provides 7 Calories per gram.
What is Triglyceride made of
Three fatty acids attached to a glycerol on the end
Fatty Acids: Categories
Dietary fats are defined by the composition of the fatty acids in the triglyceride.
1. Saturated (SFAs)
2. Monounsaturated (MUFAs)
3. Polyunsaturated (PUFAs)
Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)
• Have 0 double bonds between the carbons.
• Are found in animal products, hydrogenated vegetable fats, & tropical oils (palm &coconut oil).
• Are solid at room temperature & unhealthy.
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)
• Have 1 double bond in the carbon chain
• Are healthy
• High levels are in olive oil, canola oil, almonds, & avocado
• Become semisolid when refrigerated
• Are liquid at room temperature
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
• Have >1 double bond in the carbon chain.
• Some are essential for the body.
• Are found in plant oils like corn,cottonseed, safflower, and sunflower oil.
• Are liquid at room temperature.
• Too much can promote cancer.
Essential Fatty Acids
• Linoleic Acid & Alpha-Linolenic Acid.
• These EFAs are found in plant oils &plant foods.
Essential Fatty Acids
Give Omega and AMDR level for adults for:
Linoleic Acid & Alpha-Linolenic Acid.
Acid is an omega 6
Acid is an omega 3
- – 5-10% of Calories from Linoleic Acid
– 0.6-1.2% of Calories from Alpha-linolenic Acid
Functions of Fat
- • Increases satiety value of a meal.
- • Improves texture, flavor & aroma of food.
- • Required for fat soluble vitamin absorption.
- • Provides the body’s major energy stores.
- • Cushions vital organs.
- • Is an essential structural component of cellmembranes.
- • Provides insulation
Fat: Dietary Recommendations
- • 20-35% of total dietary Calories should come from fat. This is the AMDR.
- <7% should come from SFA. Limit trans fatty acids.
• All excess Calories consumed whether from carbohydrates, proteins, or fats are converted to fat & stored in fat cells.
• Fat is the storage form of energy in mammals.
• Non-Energy Yield: 0 Calories per gram. Phospholipids are non-caloric lipid substances.
• Sources: Lecithin is found in egg yolk and soy products and is the most common phospholipid consumed in the diet.
1. Phospholipids like lecithin are emulsifiers that allow water soluble & fat soluble substances to mix (like oil &vinegar).
2. Lecithin provides choline which is a component of the neurochemical acetylcholine.
3. Phospholipids are used to make cell membranes.
What is the most popular type of Sterol?
Cholesterol is the most popular dietary sterol
*Non-Energy Yield: Noncaloric, 0 Calories/gram
Sources of Cholesterol:
1. Exogenous: From outside the body.Cholesterol is made by animals. It is only found in animal foods & byproducts.
2. Endogenous: Made inside the human body.
• Egg yolk provides ~275 mg each.
• Organ meats & crustaceans such as crab, shrimp & lobster provide ~190mg per 3 ounces.
• Much smaller amounts are in the fat portions of animal meats & products like milk.
• Cholesterol is a very important molecule in the body.
• Cholesterol is made inside the human body, primarily in the liver, from SFA.
• Usually about 1 gram (1,000milligrams) of cholesterol per day is produced in the body.
• It is a very waxy substance.
Cholesterol is used to make
Sex glands: Progesterone, Testosterone, Estrogen. (sex hormones)
Adrenal glands: Cortisol (stress response hormone).
Liver: Bile (cholic acid)---- (Aids in fat digestion).
Skin liver kidney: Vitamin D (Nutrient)
and also Myelin Sheath & Cell membranes.
• Cholesterol can be deposited in the artery walls leading to plaque buildup & heart disease.
• To maintain heart health, the dietary recommendation is to limit intake to< 300 mg/day.
• To improve heart health, limit intake to < 200mg/day.