Nutrition 1020

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Nutrition 1020
2013-01-21 20:25:47

Lipids-Fats 1.4
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  1. Lipids are
    organic compounds and soluble in fat
  2. Categories of Lipids:
    • 1. Triglycerides
    • 2. Phospholipids
    • 3. Sterols
  3. Triglycerides “Fats”
    • Energy Yield: Fats provide 9 Calories/gram.
    • – Fats are the only type of lipid that the body can convert to ATP or produce energy from.

    – Fats are the most Calorically Dense energy producing nutrient.
  4. Caloric density: Refers to the
    Calories yielded per weight of the substance.

    – Triglycerides (dietary fats) provide 9 Calories per gram while protein and carbohydrate provide 4 Calories per gram and alcohol provides 7 Calories per gram.
  5. What is Triglyceride made of
    Three fatty acids attached to a glycerol on the end
  6. Fatty Acids: Categories

    Dietary fats are defined by the composition of the fatty acids in the triglyceride.
    1. Saturated (SFAs)

    2. Monounsaturated (MUFAs)

    3. Polyunsaturated (PUFAs)
  7. Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)
    • Have 0 double bonds between the carbons.

    • Are found in animal products, hydrogenated vegetable fats, & tropical oils (palm &coconut oil).

    • Are solid at room temperature & unhealthy.
  8. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)
    • Have 1 double bond in the carbon chain

    • Are healthy

    • High levels are in olive oil, canola oil, almonds, & avocado

    • Become semisolid when refrigerated

    • Are liquid at room temperature
  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acidsĀ  (PUFA)
    • Have >1 double bond in the carbon chain.

    • Some are essential for the body.

    • Are found in plant oils like corn,cottonseed, safflower, and sunflower oil.

    • Are liquid at room temperature.

    • Too much can promote cancer.
  10. Essential Fatty Acids
    • Linoleic Acid & Alpha-Linolenic Acid.

    • These EFAs are found in plant oils &plant foods.
  11. Essential Fatty Acids

    Give Omega and AMDR level for adults for:

    Linoleic Acid & Alpha-Linolenic Acid.
    Linoleic Acid is an omega 6 fatty acid.

    Alpha-linolenic Acid is an omega 3 fatty acid.

    • AMDR:
    • – 5-10% of Calories from Linoleic Acid

    – 0.6-1.2% of Calories from Alpha-linolenic Acid
  12. Functions of Fat
    • • Increases satiety value of a meal.
    • • Improves texture, flavor & aroma of food.
    • • Required for fat soluble vitamin absorption.
    • • Provides the body’s major energy stores.
    • • Cushions vital organs.
    • • Is an essential structural component of cellmembranes.
    • • Provides insulation
  13. Fat: Dietary Recommendations
    • 20-35% of total dietary Calories should come from fat. This is the AMDR.
    • <7% should come from SFA. Limit trans fatty acids.

    • All excess Calories consumed whether from carbohydrates, proteins, or fats are converted to fat & stored in fat cells.

    • Fat is the storage form of energy in mammals.
  14. Phospholipids (lecithin)
    • Non-Energy Yield: 0 Calories per gram. Phospholipids are non-caloric lipid substances.

    • Sources: Lecithin is found in egg yolk and soy products and is the most common phospholipid consumed in the diet.
  15. Phospholipids (lecithin):

    1. Phospholipids like lecithin are emulsifiers that allow water soluble & fat soluble substances to mix (like oil &vinegar).

    2. Lecithin provides choline which is a component of the neurochemical acetylcholine.

    3. Phospholipids are used to make cell membranes.
  16. What is the most popular type of Sterol?
    Cholesterol is the most popular dietary sterol

    *Non-Energy Yield: Noncaloric, 0 Calories/gram
  17. Sources of Cholesterol:
    1. Exogenous: From outside the body.Cholesterol is made by animals. It is only found in animal foods & byproducts.

    2. Endogenous: Made inside the human body.
  18. Exogenous Sources
    • Egg yolk provides ~275 mg each.

    • Organ meats & crustaceans such as crab, shrimp & lobster provide ~190mg per 3 ounces.

    • Much smaller amounts are in the fat portions of animal meats & products like milk.
  19. Endogenous Sources
    • Cholesterol is a very important molecule in the body.

    • Cholesterol is made inside the human body, primarily in the liver, from SFA.

    • Usually about 1 gram (1,000milligrams) of cholesterol per day is produced in the body.

    • It is a very waxy substance.
  20. Cholesterol is used to make
    Sex glands: Progesterone, Testosterone, Estrogen. (sex hormones)

    Adrenal glands: Cortisol (stress response hormone).

    Liver: Bile (cholic acid)---- (Aids in fat digestion).

    Skin liver kidney: Vitamin D (Nutrient)

    and also Myelin Sheath & Cell membranes.
  21. Cholesterol Recommendation
    • Cholesterol can be deposited in the artery walls leading to plaque buildup & heart disease.

    • To maintain heart health, the dietary recommendation is to limit intake to< 300 mg/day.

    • To improve heart health, limit intake to < 200mg/day.