Physiology

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asanto03345
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194340
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Physiology
Updated:
2013-02-04 16:16:26
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Ch. 1
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  1. Physiology
    • Study of biological function
    • -Largely concerned w/ homeostasis
    • -Emphasizes mechanisms of how things work
    • -Explained via cause and effect (NTL analogue)
    • -Derived from scientific experiments
  2. Pathophysiology
    • Concerns how disease/injury affects physiological processes
    • Aids understanding of normal processes
  3. Describe the phases of clinical trials.
    • Phase I: test for side effects
    • Phase II: test effectiveness on target subject
    • Phase III: increase sample size and diversify (e.g. expand to different sexes, age groups, ethnicities, and people with more than one health condition).  FDA determines approval for drug sale.
    • Phase IV: test other applications of the drug
  4. Homeostasis
    • A state of relative constancy of the internal environment
    • -This is dynamic (oscillatory)
    • -Main purpose of physiological mechanics is maintenance of this
    • -Deviations indicate disease
    • -Mediated via negative feedback loops
  5. Negative Feedback Loops
    Sensors acquire information and send to the integrating center, which assesses changes around a set point.  The integrating center sends instructions to an effector, which can make the appropriate adjustments to counter the change in the set point.

    Sensors → integrating center → effectors
  6. Negative Feedback Loop Mechanisms
    • Moves in opposite direction of change
    • Makes the change from the set point smaller
    • Reverses change from the set point
    • A continuous process, always making fine adjustments to stay in homeostasis

    Opposte direction → ↓∆(set pt) → Reverses ∆(set pt) → Continually making fine adjustments
  7. Antagonistic Effectors
    • •Homeostasis is maintained by opposing effectors that move conditions in opposite directions
    •   1 - Maintained within a normal range, or
    •        dynamic constancy

    • •Hot = sweat
    • •Cold = shiver
    •     •Actions produced go in opposite direction
    •       of state
  8. Positive Feedback
    • The end product in a process stimulates the process
    • The action amplifies the changes that stimulated the effectors
    • Could not work alone, but it does contribute to many neg. feedback loops (e.g. blood clotting).
  9. Intrinsic Regulation
    Cells within the organ sense a change and signal neighboring cells to respond appropriately
  10. Extrinsic Regulation
    The brain (or other organs) regulates an organ using the endocrine or nervous system

    •    •Nervous system "innervates" organs with
    •      nerve fibers
    •    •Endocrine system releases hormones into
    •      the blood, upon which they are
    •      transported to multiple target organs
  11. Feedback Control of Hormone Secretion
    • Hormones secreted in response to specific stimuli
    • Secretion can be inhibited by its own effects (e.g. glucose/insulin)
    • Neg. feedback (NF) inhibition usually involves an antagonist to make sure homeostasis is maintained within normal levels
  12. Primary Tissues
    • 1-Muscle
    • 2-Nervous
    • 3-Epithelial
    • 4-Connective

    •Each tissue has particular structures & fcns. that dictate the physiology of the organ
  13. Myoblasts
    Part of: muscular tissue

    Early muscle cells; during embryonic development these cells fuse together forming skeletal muscle fibers, known as myofibers
  14. Intercalated discs
    Part of: muscular tissue (cardiac)

    • •Characteristic of heart muscle
    • •Couple myocardial cells together mechanically and electrically
  15. Connective Tissue (CT) Proper
    Many different types:

    • 1-Loose: protein fibers composed of collagen are scattered loosely in the ground substance
    •    •Provides space for blood vessels (BVs),
    •      nerve fibers, and other strucs.

    • 2-Dense regular: densely packed collagen fibers w/ little room for cells and ground substance
    •    •Tendons & ligaments fall in this category

    3-Adipose: serves for insulation, energy storage and protection/cushioning

    4-Dense irregular: collagen fibers densely packed in many different arrangements
  16. Describe the skin.
    The largest organ in the body, consisting of a multitude of layers containing all four primary tissues.

    Epidermis: keratinized stratified squamous epithelium to protect against water loss and abrasion.

    Dermis: dense irregular CT containing exocrine glands, hair follicles, sense receptors, and BVs.

    Hypodermis: adipose tissue for padding and insulation.
  17. What constitutes an organ?
    2+ tissues that serve different fcns. in the organ; skin is the largest.
  18. Body fluid compartments.
    • Intracellular: area inside the cells; contains 65% of total body H2O.
    • Extracellular: area outside the cell, examples include blood plasma and interstitial fluid.

    Both compartments are filled primarily with water and are separated by membranes.

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