Tech II Hot, Cold, Compression, US & ACDC

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prestoncas
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Tech II Hot, Cold, Compression, US & ACDC
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2013-02-03 16:51:34
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Tech II Hot Cold Compression US ACDC
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Tech II Hot, Cold, Compression, US & ACDC
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  1. Each ______ (degree) change in body temperature results in __ (%) change in the tissues metabolic rate
    1c/1.8F & 13%
  2. Law of Grotthus Draper:
    states that the more energy absorbed by superficial layer, the less that there is to be absorbed by deeper layers.
  3. Conversion
    Energy is changed from one form to another. Ultrasound, diathermy, electrical energy into heat.
  4. Radiation
    • emmited from surfaces above absolute 0
    • transfer of energy without the use of a medium
    • Body, Sun, Infared Lamp, LASER, UV
  5. Cold Modalities
    • Range from 32-65
    • In order to be beneficial, skin temp must lower to 57
  6. Cryo Indications
    • Acute Injury or imflammation
    • Pain
    • Muscle spasms
    • Restoration of ROM
    • small, superficial 1st degree burns
    • Post surgical pain & edema
    • Neuralgia
    • Post-Exercise
  7. Cryo contraindications
    • Cardiac or respiratory involvement
    • open wounds
    • cold allergy
    • circulation insufficiency
    • advanced diabetes
    • analgesic skin
    • Reynauds
    • Lupus
  8. Effects of cryo
    • lowers tissue temperature
    • vasoconstriction
    • Prevents or limits swelling
    • decreased metabolism
    • decreases need for oxygen (reduces # of cells killed due to lack of o2)
    • decreases pain by increasing pain threshold
    • decreases cellular waste
    • decreases muscle spasms
  9. Cold decreases inflammation by:
    • decreases the release of inflammatory mediators (histamine & prostaglandin)
    • decreases prostaglandin synthesis
    • decreases capilary permeability
    • decreases creatine-kinease activity
    • decreases leukocyte-endothelial interaction
  10. Cold decreases pain by
    • decreasing edema
    • decreasing muscle spasms
    • decreases conduction velocity
    • interrupts pain transmission
  11. Mottling
    blotchy discoloration of the skin
  12. Transfer of heat occurs via
    conduction
  13. Local thermo effects
    • increases metabolism
    • vasodilation
    • increased capillary permeability
    • increased nerve conduction
    • decreased pain
    • decreased spasm
    • edema formation
  14. Systemic thermos effects
    • increases pulse rate
    • increases body temp
    • increases respiratory rate
    • decreases blood pressure
  15. indications for thermo
    • subacute & chronic pain
    • increase ROM
    • increase lymph drainage
    • increase blood flow
    • increase metabolism
    • increase pulse
    • increase respiratory rate
    • decrease pain
    • decrease muscle spasm
  16. thermo contraindications
    • acute injury
    • open wounds
    • heat stress or illness
    • loss of sensation
    • impaired circulation
    • clots
    • cancer
  17. Primary limiting factor for heat
    adipose tissue
  18. Questions to ask before using heat
    • Does the body area feel warm to the touch?
    • Is the injured area still sensitive to light to moderate touch?
    • Does the amount of swelling continue to ­ over time?
    • Does swelling ­ during activity (joint motion)?
    • Does pain limit the joint’s ROM?
    • Would you consider the acute inflammation process to still be active?
    • Does the patient continue to display improvement with the use of cold modalities?
  19. Indications for whirlpool
    • stage 3 & 4 pressure ulcers
    • infected wounds
    • wounds with think eschar
    • burns
    • subacute or chronic inflammation
    • conditions that produce weakness
  20. indications for contrast bath
    • post athletic exertion as it increases the departure of lactic acid
    • subavute or chronic inflammatory issues
  21. contraindications for contrast
    • ankle sprains
    • pts with type 2 diabetes (cannot vaso constrict or dilate)
  22. Precautions for contrast bath
    • age (under 4 or old as there is inability for thermoregulation)
    • raynauds
  23. indications for compression
    • post surgery (edema/decreases dvt liklihood)
    • lymphadema
    • amputations
    • venous ulcers
  24. contraindications for compression
    • edema w/o diagnosis
    • DVT
    • renal edema
    • arterial wounds
    • cardiac edema
    • acute infections (cellulitis)
  25. precautions for compression
    • diabetes
    • cancer
    • altered mental status
    • paralysis
    • cellulitis
    • sensitivity to compression
    • inability to comply with home instruction
  26. Benefits of US
    • Increase in blood flow
    • Increase in metabolism
    • Increased nerve conduction velocity
    • Increased CT extensibility
  27. Indications for US
    • Soft Tissue Shortening
    • Calcific Tendonitis
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Later epicondylitis
    • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    • Tendon Healing
  28. Precautions for US
    • Concentration can cause burns
    • Epiphysis of growing bones
    • Avoid too high of intensity
    • Acute inflammatory pathologies
  29. Contraindications for US
    • Over anesthetic areas, cervical ganglia & pacemaker
    • Impaired arterial circulation
    • Hemorrhage
    • Cancer
    • Thrombophlebitis
  30. Indications for phonophoresis
    • LAteral epicondylitis
    • Shin Splints
    • Knee osteoarthritis
    • TMJ Dysfunction
  31. What is TENS used for
    Controlling acute & chronic pain
  32. What is ESTR used for
    • Reducing Edema
    • Tissue Repair
  33. What is NMES used for
    • Reducing muscle spasms
    • Strengthening muscle
    • minimizing atrophy
    • Facilitating fracture healing
  34. The driving force of the electrical current is?
    The voltage
  35. What is an amper
    the measurement of the current
  36. Cathode
    Negative pole of high electron concentration
  37. Anode
    Positive pole and area of low electron concentration
  38. Semiconductor
    conducts 1 direction better than the other
  39. Rate
    how fast the energy travels
  40. Voltage
    • Force or potential difference between the 2 poles
    • Low <100-150
    • High>100-150
  41. Resistance
    • The opposition to the flow of current ... eg:
    • length
    • Material
    • temperature
  42. Ohm's law
    • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CURRENT, VOLTAGE AND RESISTANCE
    • Current is directly proportional to voltage
    • Current is inversely proportional to resistance
  43. Critereon for depolarization
    • amplitude
    • rise time
    • duration
  44. frequency
    • the amount of pulses/time
    • MENS<IFC<TENS
    • 1K-100K Hz
  45. Contraindications for AC/DC
    • Heart Issues
    • PAcemaker
    • Pregnancy
    • Menstration
    • Cancer
    • Site of Infection
    • Metal implants
    • Nerve Sensitivity
  46. Precautions
    • Peripheral neuropathy
    • Decreased sensation
    • Skin conditions
    • Cognition
    • Obesity

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