BIO chapter 2

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Author:
elevatedsound7
ID:
194413
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BIO chapter 2
Updated:
2013-02-11 16:07:56
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Bio
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BIO Ch 2
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  1. What is matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  2. Matter is made up of?
    • protons, neutrons, electrons
    • protons and neutrons are equal in number
  3. compounds are
    molecules formed from two or more different elements
  4. Types of chemical bonds
    • covalent
    • ionic
    • hydrogen
    • Van der Waals
  5. Van der Waals forces
    attractions betweeen molecules with low levels of polarity and smaller molecules
  6. Ionic bonds are
    complete transfer of electrons
  7. two different types of ions
    • cations = + charged particle
    • anions = - charged particle
  8. what are four types of macromolecules
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  9. Carbohydrates =
    • sugars and starches
    • represented by (CH2O)n n= # of repeats
    • carbs used for structure - eg cellulose
    • carbs used for storage - eg starch
  10. lipids are
    • group of nonpolar molecules
    • triglycerides
    • phospholipids
    • sterols
  11. triglycerides =
    • fats
    • oils
    • primarily energy storage
  12. phospholipids =
    • amphipathic
    • 2 fatty acids (hydropobic)
    • phosphate (hydropilic)
    • important membrane molecule
  13. sterols
    • multi ring structure
    • used in membranes - cholesterol, ergosterol
    • bile acids
    • hormones
  14. proteins
    • predominant organic molecule
    • 22 different amino acid monomers
    • polymerized with a peptide bond
    • can be structural, mechanical, enzymatic
  15. different types of protein structure
    • primary = amino acid chain
    • secondary = beta pleated, alpha helix
    • tertiary = 3 dimensional folded polypeptide chan
    • quaternary = more than one peptide chain
  16. DNA =
    • genetic material of all cells
    • encodes info for the cell
    • four monomers A<C<G>T
  17. nucleotides =
    • Purines = A and G
    • Pyrimidines = C and T
    • Chargaff's Rules = A and T, C and G
  18. RNA
    • involved in translation
    • several kinds = mRNA, rRNa, tRNA, snRNA
    • U NOT T
  19. ATP =
    • chemical energy storage for the cell
    • high energy bonds
    • ATP is a nucleotide of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates
    • each ATP releases 32kJ energy
  20. Eukaryotic cells
    • animal, plants, fungi, protists
    • have a nucleus and cellular organelles
    • tend to be larger
  21. Prokaryotic cells are
    • bacteria and arhae
    • no nucleus or other organelles
    • tend to be smaller

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