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2013-01-22 09:59:41
Biological psychology brain structures

Brain & function
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  1. Set of axons connecting the two cerebral hemispheres; smaller than the corpus callosum
    A) Anterior commissure
    B) Central sulcus
    C) Inferior colliculus
    D) Basal ganglia
    A) Anterior commissure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Areas of the nervous system with a high density of cell bodies and dendrites, with few myelinated axons
    Gray matter
  3. Inner layer of Cerebral Cortex is consisting of
    a) Grey matter
    b) White matter
    White matter
  4. Most posterior part of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
  5. It is not a separate system, but a collection of structures from the cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrain, including the hippocampus, amygdalae, anterior thalamic nuclei, It supports a variety of functions, including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. It appears to be primarily responsible for our emotional life, and has a great deal to do with the formation of memories.
    LIMBIC system
  6. Modified version of MRI that measures energies released by hemoglobin molecules in an MRI scan and then determines the brain areas receiving the greatest supply of blood and oxygen
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  7. Layer of cell bodies parallel to the surface of the cortex and separated from other laminae by layers of fibers
    Lamina (pl.: laminae)
  8. Which system (set of neurons) regulates functioning of the internal organs?
    Autonomic nervous system
  9. Bell-Magendie law
    the dorsal roots of the spinal cord carry sensory information and that the ventral roots carry motor information toward the muscles and glands
  10. Question/Problem of how the visual, auditory, and other areas of the brain influence one another to produce a combined perception of a single object
    Binding problem
  11. Hindbrain, midbrain, and posterior central structures of the forebrain
  12. Large groove in the surface of the primate cerebral cortex, separating frontal from parietal cortex
    Central sulcus
  13. Part of a set of nerves controlling sensory and motor information of the head, connecting to nuclei in the medulla, pons, midbrain, or forebrain
    Cranial nerves
  14. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    device that measures the brain's electrical activity through electrodes on the scalp
  15. Most anterior part of the brain, including the cerebral cortex and other structures
  16. Method of imaging a living brain by using a magnetic field and a radio frequency field to make atoms with odd atomic weights all rotate in the same direction and then removing those fields and measuring the energy that the atoms release
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  17. Hindbrain structure located just above the spinal cord; could be regarded as an enlarged, elaborated extension of the spinal cord
  18. Membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
  19. Middle part of the brain, including superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, tectum, and tegmentum
  20. Section of the cerebral cortex between the occipital lobe and the central sulcus
    Parietal lobe
  21. endocrine gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus
    Pituitary gland
  22. hindbrain structure, anterior and ventral to the medulla
  23. Method of mapping activity in a living brain by recording the emission of radioactivity from injected chemicals
    Positron-emission tomography (PET)
  24. Anterior portion of the frontal lobe of the cortex, which responds mostly to the sensory stimuli that signal the need for a movement
    Prefrontal cortex
  25. Group of neurons in the pons and medulla whose axons extend throughout much of the forebrain
    The main function is mostly pain mediation; in fact it sends projections to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to directly inhibit pain.
    Raphe system
  26. Network of neurons in the medulla and other parts of the brainstem; the descending portion controls motor areas of the spinal cord; the ascending portion selectively increases arousal and attention in various forebrain areas.
    It acts as a filter to incoming stimuli and discriminates important from unimportant. Hundreds of millions of sensory receptors flood the brain; the brain does not have the capacity to deal with even a small fraction of this information, so much of it must be ignored.
    Reticular formation
  27. This system conveys messages from the sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to muscles and glands
    Somatic nervous system
  28. Controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.It also contains reflexes such as vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccupping, swallowing, and digestion.
    Medulla oblongata
  29. Coordinates and refines complex muscle movements.   Movement information that is initiated in higher brain centers (the cerebral cortex) is compared to the actual position of the limbs.  It then adjusts and refines the movement.
  30. The (X) receives some sensory information and sends it to the appropriate part of the forebrain.
    The (X) originally functioned for reflexes associated with visual input. It is the most prominent part of the brain in fishes and amphibians and has major control of the body.
    The (X) of reptiles, birds, and mammals controls visual reflexes such as the pupil response to light intensity but the forebrain of these vertebrates processes the visual information (see diagram below). 
    The (X) also controls some auditory reflexes and helps control posture.
  31. Like the midbrain of mammals, this structure serves as a relay area to the cerebrum from other parts of the spinal cord and brain. For example, it receives sensory input (except smell) and sends to appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex.
  32. Over evolutionary time, gray matter developed over the cerebrum. This is an information-processing center. It increased in size more rapidly than the skull so that it has become folded (convoluted) in order to fit in the skull.
    Cerebral Cortex
  33. Breathing, connects spinal cord, cerebellum and higher brain centers. Just dorsal of the medulla!
  34. What looks gray because it is unmyelinated.It contains the short interneurons that connect many sensory and motor neurons. Sensory neurons enter this, and the axons of motor neurons leave it.The cell bodies of these motor neurons are located here.
    Grey matter
  35. Located toward the stomach, away from the back (dorsal) side
  36. Area of the nervous system consisting mostly of myelinated axons
    White matter