structure prop. matter 1

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kayekitty
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structure prop. matter 1
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2013-01-22 18:43:41
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structure prop. matter 1
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  1. nucleus
    protons + neutrons, dense center o atom
  2. #neutrons 
    atomic mass - atomic number
  3. rutherford + bohr
    • r: discovered nucleus      
    • gold-foil experiment
    • atom mainly empty space, contains small positively charged nucleus most atoms mass located, negatively charged electrons
    • b:  discovered atomic orbitals
    • could only occupy orbits with fixed energy values (energy level)
    • light emission/photon absorbed
    • line spectrum
    • planetary model o hydrogen atom
  4. Octet Rule 
    tend to gain, lose, or share electrons till surrounded by 8 valence electrons
  5. periodic table review
    • Electronegativity: increases left to right, increases bottom to top
    • Atomic radius: increases right to left, increases top to bottom
    • Ionization energy: increases left to right, increases bottom to top
    • Electron affinity: increases left to right, increases bottom to top
  6. ionic
    • Metal + non-metal
    • Cations + anions
    • Ionic - exchange of electrons
    • Very strong
    • -High melting point
    • -Hard and brittle
    • -Bad conductor as a solid, good conductor dissolved in solution
    • NaCl
  7. Metallic
    • metal + metal
    • Metal atoms
    • Metallic bonding - high density of shared, delocalized electrons
    • Dependent on number of electrons in delocalized sea
    • -low melting point
    • -Malleable
    • - good conductor of 
    • electricity
    • Copper (Cu)
  8. Covalent
    • Non-metal + non-metal
    • Atoms + atoms
    • Covalent bonds - shared valence electrons
    • Very strong
    • -high melting point
    • -very hard
    • -bad conductor of electricity
    • Diamond (C)
  9. molecular/vanderwalls
    • Non-polar
    • non-metal + non-metal
    • Between molecules
    • london dispersion forces
    • weak
    • low melting point
    • -soft
    • non-conducting
    • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  10. molecular polar
    • polar
    • Non-metal + non-metal
    • Between molecules
    • Dipole-dipole
    • Hydrogen bonds
    • Weaker than covalent
    • -moderate melting point
    • -soft
    • -non-conducting
    • One atom has greater electronegativity
    • Electrons move around nuclei w/ electrons spend most time near more electroneg
    • Element
    • dependent on molecular geometry (if 4 bonds pulling opp directions = not polar)
    • Water (H2O)
  11. bond spectrum
    • use diff o electroneg
    • 0-0.5 is non-polar
    • 0.5-1.7 is polar
    • >1.7 is ionic.
  12. intermolecular/intramolecular
    • Intramolecular forces: occur within molecule
    • Intermolecular forces: occur between molecules
  13. types covalent bonds
    • London forces    
    • Result fr movement electrons in molecules generate temp. +/- regions in molec      
    • Only type of forces non-polar covalent molec. Can experience
    • Dipole-dipole forces  
    • Positive + negative ends molec attract each other
    • Only polar covalent molecules form dipole-dipole attractions
    • Hydrogen bonds     
    • Between polar covalent molecules with hydrogen bonded to extremely electroneg. Elecment FON (fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen)
    • Often between organic molecules  
    • Weaker than covalent bond
  14. types o solids
    • ionic solids
    • network covalent solids: e.g. diamonds, quartz     
    • Non-metals
    • High melting/boiling points    
    • hard and brittle   
    • Very strong bonds      
    • Insoluble in most solvents    
    • Require lot o energy to dissolve   
    • Poor elec conductors
    • molecular solids: Made o molecules held together by weak intermolec forces    
    • Relatively low melting points
    • Soft        
    • Insoluble in water     
    • Soluble in non-polar solvents
    • Poor conduc. Electricity e.g. iodine
    • non-polar molec solids: low melting pt/soft/non conduc e.g. paraffin wax
    • polar molec solids: e.g. water, polar molecules, low melting pt, soft, non conduct
    • metallic solids: metals, high conduct, low melting pt, hard/soft e.g. copper
  15. orbitals
    • 3D regions of space around a nucleus in which electrons are likely to be found  
    • energy level = principle quantum number or
    • shell -> assigned whole numbers 
    • describes the average energy of electrons found within that shell    
    • Orbits refer to specific paths around an object   
    • Orbitals refer to regions of space
    • each individual orbital can hold either 1 or 2 electrons
  16. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
    • electron's location and velocity around an atom's nucleus at a given time cannot both be determined precisely.
  17. give names o 4 quantum numbers + symbol
    • Principal quantum number (n) # enrgylvls/shells
    • Secondary quantum number (azimuthal
    • quantum number) (l)
    • Magnetic quantum number (ml or just m)
    • Spin quantum number (ms  or just s)  
    • the energy levels start at 1 and increase as whole numbers   
    • the maximum value of l in an energy level(n) is up to (n-1)
    • each orbital is allowed to have a maximum of 2 electrons of opposite spin
  18. Pauli exclusion principle
    in a given atom, no 2 electrons can occupy the same quantum state (therefore they cannot have the same set of 4 quantum numbers (n, l, ml and ms))
  19. electron configuration
    • represents the arrangement of electrons around the atom's nucleus
    • s 2 (start at 2, +4)
    • p 6
    • d 10
    • f 14
    • g 18
    • h
    • then alphabetical
  20. 1s22s22p3
    • big number = enrgy lvl
    • letter = orbital
    • exponents = #electrons in orbital   
    • there must be 3 different “p” orbitals       
    • These orbitals are px, py and pz
  21. sdpf on periodic table
  22. identify characteristic properties of elements in each of the s, p, and d blocks
    • S block in the periodic table of elements occupies the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, + Helium, ends in S(same for others)
    • maximum of two electrons that can occupy the s orbital
    • maximum of six electrons that can occupy the p orbital. contains non-metals, metalloids, transition metals,  outermost electron in a p-subshell (all)
    • D block elements are also known as the transition metals
    • maximum of ten electrons in d orbital
    • F block elements are the lanthanides and actinides.
    • maximum of fourteen electrons

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