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Symptoms that cause mental, emotional, or physical pain
The environment and circumstances in which a behaviour occurs
Define cultural relativism?
- No universal definition of what is abnormal
- abnormality is relative to specific culture norms
What about gender roles?
Freud definition: What society considers to be the appropriate behavior of males and females
criterion for abnormality that usggests that abnormal behaviours are rare or unexpected
behaviours that cause a person great distress should be labelled as abnormal
- also called dysfunctional
- lost touch with reality and cannot control their thoughts
- for people who have behaviors that cause physical or emotional harm
define mental illness
physical illness that causes severe abnormal thoughts, behaviors and feelings
What is the biological theories
theories of abnormalities that focus on the biological causes of abnormal behaviours
What are psychological theories
Mental disorders causes by psychological process: beliefs, thinking styles and coping styles
What are the supernatural theories
mental disorders are the results of supernatural forces ( divine intervention, curses, demonic aurora). Mental disorders can be cured through religious rituals, and maybe death.
- Performed during stone ages
- procedures in which holes were drilled in the skulls of people to allow evil spirits to depart their bodies.
What is a psychic epidemics?
A phenomena where large numbers of people begin to engage in unusual behaviors that has a psychological origin
Explain moral treatment?
- A treatment
- patients are treated with respect & dignity, and encourages to exercise self-control
What is general paresis?
- disease that leads to paralysis, insanity and then death
- this established the connection between biological diseases and mental disorders
What is mesmerism?
- treatment for hysterical patients
- idea that there are magnetic fluids in patients' bodies, and it is affected by external people and objects
- treatment procedure is to realign the magnetic force by practioner
What is psychoanalysis?
- Form of treatment for psychopathology involving alleviating unconscious conflicts that cause psychological conflict
- essentially help people gain insight into their conflict and finding ways to resolve them
the study of the impact of reinforcements and punishments on behaviour
thoughts or beliefs
What is self-efficacy beliefs?
Believing that one can engage in hte behaviors necessary to overcome a situation
What is deinstitutionalization?
a social movement for restoring their basic legal rights of psychiatric patients
What is the patients' right movement?
- a movement to ensure that psychiatric patients retain their basic rights
- remove them from institutions
- care for them within the community
What are clinical social workers?
- people with masters degree in social work
- helps people over come social conditions which drives psychological problems
What are marriage/family therapists
people specialized in these relationships to overcome problems that are interfering with their well being
What are occupational therapists?
- holds a masters degree
- help individual overcome mental/physical issues that affect their productivity
What so special about psychiatric nurses
people with a nursing degree who specialized in the treatment of people with severe psychological issues
What is the integrationist approach
an approach to psychpathology using the biosociopsych model
What is bereavement practices? and define the complicated aspect
- expected to mourn for their loved one after demise, and then to "let go" and move one instantly after a long period of time
- itf its complicated, it means they believe they are still talking to their deceased as if they are alive
Cultural relivtism is argued back by what example?
We should not rely on cultural relitivism to dictate what is abnormal, as this influence was used to justify the Holocaust.
What is drapetomania?
A sickness slaves got to desire freedom
What are the 3 components of maladaptiveness?
- The 3Ds
- distress,dysfunction, deviance
What is the diathesis-stress model?
- Two elements in the model:
- a diasthesis: predisposition to devloping a mental disorder
- and a trigger: usually a stressful life event
What are the criterion that define abnormal psychology?
- 4 in total
- cultural relitivism
- mental illness
The three theories that cause abnormal behaviour?
- biological theories - seen as similar to physical inless
- supernatural theories - a divine internvention
- psychological theories - caused from trauma and bereavement
What were the stonge age views?
They were supernatural believers
What about the chinese and greek?
- The Chinese believed in supernatural theory ( yin and yang)
- The Greek believed in biological theories
When did moral treatment first occur?
In the 18th centuary