Chemistry cards for exam

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daynanairn
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Chemistry cards for exam
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2013-01-22 18:11:04
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Chemistry Atoms
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  1. Matter
    Anything that has mass and occupies space
  2. Pure Substance
    • Matter that contains only one kind of particle
    • i.e.- Helium and Water
  3. Mixture
    • Matter that contains more than one kind of particle
    • i.e.- Salt water, Air
  4. Element
    • A pure substance that cannot be broken down into ssimpler parts by chemical methods
    • i.e.- Heluim
  5. Compound
    • A pure substance made up of two or more different elements that are chemically combined
    • i.e.- Water
  6. Physical Property
    • A characteristic of a substance that can be observed and measured without changing the identity of the substance
    • Can be either quantitative or qualitative
    • i.e.- Hardness, Viscosity, Colour, State
  7. Viscosity
    • The measure of a substance's resistance to flow
    • The more viscous a fluid is, the slower it flows
    • Water and molasses are two fluids with very different viscosities
  8. Melting Point
    • The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid
    • i.e.- Waters melting point is 0 degrees celcius
  9. Boiling Point
    • The temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas
    • i.e.- Waters boiling point is 100 degrees celcius, yet heliums boiling point is -269 degrees celcius
  10. Solubility
    • A measure of the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance
    • i.e.- Salt is a solute that easily dissolves in water to produce a saltwater solution
  11. Density
    • The ration of the mass of a substance to the volume it occupies
    • i.e.- A substance has a mass of 5.04 g and a volume of 0.48 cm3, what is the density?
    •  
  12. Chemical Property
    The ability of a substance to change or react, and to form new substances
  13. Combustibility
    The ability of a substance to burn in air
  14. Stability
    The ability of a substance to remain unchanged
  15. Toxicity
    The ability of a substance to cause harmful effects in plants and animals
  16. Atom
    • The smallest particle of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
    • Simple model of the atom
  17. Electron
    • A negatively charged particle within an atom
    • Electrons are NOT in the nucleus
  18. Subatomic Particle
    • A particle that is smaller than the atom
    • i.e.- Nuetrons, Electrons, and Protons
  19. Nucleus
    • In chemistry, the positively charged center of an atom
    • The nucleus contains neutrons and protons
  20. Proton
    • A positively changed particle that is part of every atomic nucleus
    • The blue dots in the diagram below are protons
  21. Neutron
    • An uncharged particle that is part of almost every atomic nucleus
    • The red dots in teh diagram below are neutrons
  22. Energy Levels
    • Areas of space surronding the nucleus of an atom that electrons occupy
    • The row the element is in tells you how many energy levels it has with electrons in it
    • The energy levels on the diagram below are the thin black lines around the nucleus
  23. Atomic Number
    • The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
    • i.e.- Oxygen has an atomic number of 8
  24. Mass Number
    • The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
    • i.e.-Oxygen has a mass number of 16
  25. Isotope
    • One of two or more forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
    • i.e.- hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 are different isotopes of hydrogen because they have different numbers of neutrons.
    • In the diagran below there is a hydrogen-1 atom, a hydrogen-2 isotope, and a hydrogen-3 isotope
  26. Bohr-Rutherford Diagram
    • Used to show the arragnement of subatomic particles for an element
    • Protons and neutrons- placed in a centre circle
    • Electrons- placed in surrounding cirlces
  27. Atomic Mass
    • The average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
    • i.e.- Oxygen has an atomic mass of 16
  28. Periodic Table
    A system for organizing the elements into columns and rows, so that elements with similar properties are in the same column
  29. Metal
    • Typically, an element that is hard, shiny, malleable, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity
    • Metals are found on the left side of the perodic table and areblue on the diagram below
  30. Non-metal
    • Typically, an element that is not shiny, malleable, and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
    • Non-metals are found on the right side of the periodic table and are yellow on the diagram below
  31. Metalloids
    • An element that shares some properties with metals and some properties with non-metals
    • Metalloids are green on the diagram below and are found in a bold stair case on most periodic tables
  32. Period
    • A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
    • The periods are numbered from 1-7 from top to bottom as shown below
  33. Group
    • A vertical column of elements in the periodic table
    • The groups are labelled 1-18 from left to right as shown below
  34. Alkali Metal
    • A group of elements that all have low melting points, are highly reactive, and are soft enough to be cut with a knife. They have 1 valence electron (Group 1 in the periodic table)
  35. Alkaline Earth Metal
    • A group of elements that are all very reactive (but less that group 1 and 17), capable of burning in air, and produce bright coloured flames. They have 2 valence electrons (Group 2 in the periodic table)
  36. Halogens
    • A group of elements that are all highly reactive, extremely corrosive, and the bottom of the group has a high melting point. They have 7 valence electrons (Group 17 in the periodic table)
  37. Noble Gases
    • A group of elements that are all colourless, odorless, gases at room temperature which are non-reactive. They have a full set of valance electrons
  38. Valence Electrons
    • An electron in the outermost occupied energy level of an atom
  39. Ion
    • A positively or negatively charged group of atoms
    • i.e.- When else atom loses electrons to look like the nearest noble gas, it becomes a positively charged ion
    • This is shown in the figure below
  40. Chemical bond
    • A chemical link between two atoms, which holds the atoms together 
    • i.e.- ionic bond, convalent bond
  41. Ionic bond
    • A chemical bond that froms between oppositely charged ions
    • This forms between two ions to create a neutral compound
  42. Ionic compound
    • A compound made of oppositely charged ions
    • When one or more electrons are transfered from one atom to another. This is to create a full set of valence electrons.
  43. Molecular compound
    • A compound formed when atoms of two or more different elements share electrons
    • Formed when atpairs hare a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
  44. Covalent bond
    • A chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
    • An analogy for a convalent bond is a tug of war game because two teams are joined by one mutual rope
  45. Molecule
    • The smallest discrete particle of a molecular compound; has one or more shared pairs of electrons in one or more convalent bonds

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