Science Section 3, Everything up to the Gemini Program
When was Sputnik launched
October 4, 1957
What year was Explorer I launched? Under the direction of which scientist
Launched in 1958 under the direction of Werner von Braun
Which president created Nasa
What was the first space probe to hit the moon
Luna 2, 1959
What ship was Yuri Gagarin aboard
Who became the first American in space
Alan Shepard (though not in orbit)
Who was the first American to orbit earth?
John Glenn 1962
Between 1961-1964 by what percent was Nasa budget increased?"
How many Nasa employees were involved in the lunar landing program? How many people in general?
34000 and 375000
Which German rocket scientist claimed that after the launch of Sputnik, Russia had won a propoganda victory and he was "unimpressed"
Who was director of Project Vanguard
John F. Hagen
For what ocassion was Sputnik II to be launched for
40th anniversary of the Russian Revolution
What was sent on the jounry of Sputnik II
Laika, a small Husky with only enough room to lie down or stand
What did Russia claim about the death of Laika? How did she really die?
They said she was put to sleep after several days, but in reality an electronic short lead to the cabin reaching up to 120 degrees and she died of het exhaustion
Which soviet space craft to pictures of the far side of the moon
Who was responsible to manage the Ranger program
Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena Calif.
How were the attempts of Ranger 1-5
All failures for the most part but Ranger 4 did crash onto the moons surface amking it the first spacecraft to reach lunar surface
How was Ranger 6
It was fitted with a telivision camera to send back high definition images of the moon but ended burning and crashing damagin the camera system
What was the result of Ranger 7
It sent back thousands of photos and showed the moon as having a relatively smooth surface. In one shot of a crater we can see boulders at the bottom, proving the moon could support a lander
What did Dr. Shoemaker argue?
That craters on the moon were formed by large meteorites hitting the moon then smaller fragments landing near by
What was the result of Ranger 8
Sending back more photos it showed images of the craters Ritter and Sabine which to some scientist looked like large calderas; this sparks talks of volcanic origin of craters
What was the result of Ranger 9
Sending back images of the crater Alphonsus and adding to the arguement of volcanic origin - it also broadcast images live to earth with the caption "Live from the Moon"
What was the result of Lunar Orbiter I
Caught the picture which captured the worlds imagination, a cresent of the earth hanging over a barren lunar landscape
What was the result of Lunar Orbiter II
Sent back more photos and caught what was called the "Picture of the Century" of the crater Copernius with the Carpathian mountians in the background
What percent of the Moon was covered by the 5 Lunar Orbiter missions
What was an important product of the first Lunar Obiter mission
it noticed flux in gravity which was attributed to small mass concentrations called Mascons benath the maria
Who was the Soviet Unions anonymous chief of Rocketytytytytyy
Which craft did the Soviets claim made a soft landing on the? But what was the reality of the landing?
Luna 9, the reality was that the landing was hard and no human could have survived
Which space craft made the first true soft landing on the moon
How was Surveyor I's experience on the Lunar surface
It was not designed to survive the cold so went into hibernation, then woke later to take and send back images
What was the result of Surveyor II
it was a complete failure and crashed into the moons surface
How did Surveyor 3 make history twice
Because it's engines failed it bounces on the lunar surface 3 times and took samples with its Soil Mechanics Surface Sampler proving the rocks were solid and not small parts
How was Surveyor 5 almost a failure
A leak in a helium tank used to pressurize the vernier engine but wwas fixed by some changes
What did Surveyor 5 give evidence of
That the lunar surface was composed of oxygen, silicon and aluminum - giving it basaltic origin
What does Vostok stand for?
Russian for east
What features were present inside of Vostok I
Cameras, space to ground radio, control panel, life equipment, food and water
How many orbits was Yuri Gagarin's flight
What did Yuri say the earth resembled
A blue Halo
Did Gagarin have any control over the space craft
No, since scientist didn't know how the conditions would effect Gagarin they disabled the controls
How was Gagarin's landing almost a catastrophe?
On the way back to earth it began to spiral down but stabilized as the cabin disconnected from the rocket
who was the pilot of Vostok II
Who was the first woman and civilian in space
Who was the first female in space from the United States
What was the United States first manned space program
What were the qualifications to become a pilot in Project Mercury
Max age of 40, max height of 71 inches, max weight of 180lbs , and a college education
Who was Chuck Yeager
US Airforce pilot who was widely considered the best test pilot who was left out of Project Mercury because of a lack of college education
Who were the Mercury "Seven"
The test pilots selected for Porject Mercury who were
M. Scott Carpenter
L. Gordon Cooper Jr.
John Glenn Jr.
Virgil "Gus" Grissom
Walter Schirra Jr.
Alan Shepard Jr.
Donald "Deke" Slayton
Of the Mercury Seven, who was removed because of an irregular heatbeat
Donald "Deke" Slayton
What was the first American ballistic missle, responsible for carrying the first two Mercury Capsules? Which rocket carried the reaming capsules?
Redstone (version that carried the Mercury capsules was Mercury-Redstone)
The Mercury-Atlas carried the rest
What was carried in two of the original Mercury flights? What was in the final test flight?
IN the final test flight a Chimpanzee named Ham was sent in
Who was the pilot of the first Mercury manned space flight? What did he name hiks capsule?
Alan Shepard named his capsule Freedom 7
Which pilot made the second Mercury space flight? What did he name his capsule?
Gus Grissom in Liberty Bell 7
What improvements did Liberty Bell 7 have over Freedom 7
Easy to use hand controls and an explosive escape hatch
What problem did Grissom face on his mission
After landing in the Atlantic ocean the bolts on the side hatch exploded filling the cabin with water and sinking the capsule. He was rescued unharmed
Who was the first American to see a sunset and sunrise from space
John Glenn from his capsule Friendship 7 (Mercury Missions)
What problem came up during John Glenns flight on Friendship 7
His heat shield had came loose, so when he entered atmosphere he would burn up - he was instructed to keep the retrorockets on for a layer but as it seems when he touched down safely the indication of the heat shield being loose was false
What did Scott Carpenter name his capsule? What was he responsible for while in orbit?
Aurora 7, he spent his time counting stars, photographing sites on earth, and recording how fluids reacted in a weightless environment
For what reason was Scott Carpenter not selected for another space flight
While coincidently bumping the side of his capsule he noticed a bright shower of particles coming off the side which he referred to as "fireflies" he was distracted by them and overshot his re-entry
Who flew the six - orbit Mercury Mission and what was his capsules name?
Walter Schirra in a capsule he named Sigma 7
What did Walter Schirra's flight prove
Being the highest flight of the Mercury Project it proved an astronaut could fly in a capsule for at least a day
Who flew the final Mercury Mission
Gordon Cooper on Faith 7
What were the three issues that had to be overcome to land on the moon
The ability of space craft to dock
the ability of astronautics to work outside the space craft in space
the ability for humans to work over long periods in space
What Russian program was initiated in response to Gemini, and also, to bridge the gap between Vostok and Soyuz
The ejection seat in Vostok was replaced with what in Voskhod?
For a seat that could fit two in suits, or three without suits
In the Voskhod program, safety was given __________ consideration
What was the main purpose of the Voskhod program?
To achieve the first ever EVA
What is an EVA
How many flew on Voskhod 1
Engineer Konstantin Feoktistov
How did Konstantin Feoktistov earn a seat on Voskhod 1
His hands in helping transition Vostok spacecraft into the Voskhod
What are two firsts of the Voskhod 1
First to send multiple humans into space
First to send humans into space without suits
What did the crew do in their one day in space
Carried out medical experiments
Who were the two cosmonauts of Voskhod 2
What was a first of Voskhod 2
Leonov first to attempt an EVA
What was an unexpected problem with Leonov's EVA
On his way back to the space craft his suit had ballooned up and he couldn't re-enter the spacecraft, he released air from his suit and fit back in
What was a major problem with the re-entry to earth for the Voskhod 2 craft
The automatic re-entry features didn't work, so Belyayev have to manually bring her back in, they landed somewhere in the Ural Mountains 1240 miles off course and spent the night in the cold with wolves