struct propr matter 2
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draw orbital shapes s, p (px, py, pz), d (dxy, dyz, dxz, dx2-y2, dz2)
combination of 2 or more orbitals
- Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion theory
- electrons around the central atom arrange themselves in order to produce the minimum amount of repulsion between them
determine hybridization o central atom
- count #paired electrons (inclu single, triple, lone pairs)
- 5 sp3d
- 4 sp3
- 3 sp2,
- 2 sp
- 1 p (diatomic) or s (regular)
Atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
- made of molecules held together by weak intermolecular forces.
- forces between molecules are much weaker than the covalent bonds within the molecules.
Atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons.
- Material Safety Data Sheets
- contain information on the potential health effects of exposure to chemicals, or other potentially dangerous substances, and on safe working procedures when handling chemical products.
explain how the physical properties of a solid or liquid depend on the particles present and the types of intermolecular and intramolecular forces
- Physical properties of liquids and solids are due to intermolecular forces.
- if strong forces then usually solid
- weak = liquid/gas
- In liquids, properties such as surface tension, evaporation are the result of intermolecular forces.
- strength of attractiveforces between particles(atoms, ions, molecules)determines a substance’s state at room temp
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