Chapter 13 & 14
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1 rad =
(rad is ABSORBED dose)
- 0.01 Gy
- (also stated as 1 Gy = 100 rad)
1 rem =
(rem is dose EQUIVALENT)
- 0.01 Sv
- (also stated as 1 Sv = 100 rem)
What are the 4 assumptions of the Bohr atom model?
- 1. electrons around the nucleus exist in certain energy states(orbits)
- 2. electrons do NOT lose energy in their own orbits
- 3.when electrons move to a lower energy orbit they emit radiation. Lost energy is seen as the atomic spectra.
- 4. in any orbit the momentum of the electron can only have fixed values and are given an integer multiple of a fundamental constant (Planck's constant[h]) p.280, #4
What are the 4 forces responsible for the interaction between different particles?
- (In order greatest to least)
- strong force
- weak force
What is absorbed dose?
radiation x energy absorbed by a medium
What does amu stand for?
- atomic mass unit
- (mass of an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12.00 amu)
What is an Atom?
smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element
What is direct proportionality?
as one ration increases the other ratio increases or vise versa
What is an electrical charge?
- fundamental property(character) of subatomic particles, it determines the strength of their EM interaction.
- note: the MASS of a particle determines the strength of their gravitational interaction.
What is electron volt(eV)?
special "derived" unit for radiation energies
What is the formula for the number of electrons allowed in any shell of an atom?
- 2n2, n = shell number(K=1,L=2,M=3 and so on)
- note: the energy of a shell increases with the increase of the value of n(the more e the more energy)
What is gravity force?
force responsible for interaction between particles with nonzero mass and has an infinite range
Gray can be expressed in units of?
What is Gray(Gy)?
- radiation ABSORBED dose
- (it replaced the outdated unit of rad)
What is GROUND STATE of an atom?
lowest possible energy state of an atom, n= 1
protons and neutrons
What is inverse proportionality?
as one factor increases the other factor decreases and vice versa
(J) is the accepted metric(SI) unit of energy
- 1 kgm2/s2(1 kilogram-meter2 per second2)
What are leptons?
What is linear interpolation?
process of calculating unkown values from known values
A becquerel(Bq) =
1 dcps(disintegration per second)
a neutron has no charge
note: from gray box p.280
as the atomic number of an atom increases the number of electrons increases(keeps atom neutrally charged)
What is the number of electrons allowed in any outer shell?
What is proportion?
when two ratios are equal or an equation relating two ratios
What is radiation?
transmitted energy in the form of electromagnetic waves
What is a ratio?
comparison of two numbers, values or terms
What is Roentgen(r) measurement used for?
amount of radiation exposure in the AIR
What are the 2 rules by which electrons fill an atom's shell?
- 1. no shell can contain more than its max number of electrons
- 2. the outermost shell can only hold 8 electrons
What does SAD stand for?
source to axis distance
What does SI stand for?
international system of units
What does SSD stand for?
source to skin distance
What is a strong force?
short ranged force responsible for interaction between neutron and proton and other particles in the hadrons family
What are subatomic particles?
neutrons, protons and electrons
What are the 4 fundamental units in the metric system?
- ampere(electrical current)
What is weak force?
- short ranged force responsible for interaction between elementary particles(neutrinos and antineutrinos)
- responsible for radioactive decay(beta decay)
Who was Becquerel?
He discovered redioactivity with Marie Curie.
Who was Madam Marie Curie?
She is known for discovering Radium and Polonium. She coined the word "radioactivity".
Who was Roentgen?
He discovered X rays.
Electron's binding energy
the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom
electrons in the outermost shell of the atom
excited state (of an electron)
state in which an atom picks up outside energy, causing an electron to move into a higher-energy orbital
when energy is imparted to an electron it becomes excited, the atom will then reach an unstable state
when an electron is removed from an atom
excess energy(photons) released from an atom when an electron from a higher energy orbit fills the empty space of an ionized electron
outer electron that is knocked out of an atom
strong nuclear force
force that tightly binds protons and neutrons of a nucleus
number of protons in a nucleus
atom mass number
number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
proton and neutron together
- holds protons together in the nucleus by overcoming electrostatic force
- (protons in the nucleus are all positive and would naturally repel each other
nuclear binding energy
total amount of energy that it takes to hold a nucleus together
minimum amount of energy needed to keep nucleons together
emission of energy from nucleus
In relationship to the atom, Z =
atomic number, # of protons
In relationship to the atom, A =
atomic mass number, nucleon(protons & neutrons together)
In relationship to the atom, N =
Z, atomic number(protons) stay the same
A, mass number(protons and neutrons) stay the same
N, neutron number, stays the same
everything stays the same(Z,A and N)
packet of energy traveling through space at the speed of light(in a vacuum)
the speed of light =
3 x 10⁸ m/sec
waves that consist of anelectrical field and magnetic field traveling through space at right angles to each other
nu (ν) =
frequency of a EM wave
wavelength of a EM wave
speed of a EM wave(constant) which is the speed of light in a vacuum
a photon has no mas
when photons exhibit the characteristics of a particle at times and a wave at times
mass (weight) of a particle when it is not moving
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