Chapter 13 & 14

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Chapter 13 & 14
2013-01-29 19:22:31
Radiation Physics

Scott's Test Feb. 1st JQ
Show Answers:

  1. 1 eV =
    1.602 x 10-19 J
  2. 1 Gy =
    100 rad
  3. 1 rad =
    (rad is ABSORBED dose)
    • 0.01 Gy
    • (also stated as 1 Gy = 100 rad)
  4. 1 rem =
    (rem is dose EQUIVALENT)
    • 0.01 Sv
    • (also stated as 1 Sv = 100 rem)
  5. What are the 4 assumptions of the Bohr atom model?
    • 1. electrons around the nucleus exist in certain energy states(orbits)
    • 2. electrons do NOT lose energy in their own orbits
    • 3.when electrons move to a lower energy orbit they emit radiation. Lost energy is seen as the atomic spectra.
    • 4. in any orbit the momentum of the electron can only have fixed values and are given an integer multiple of a fundamental constant (Planck's constant[h]) p.280, #4

  6. What are the 4 forces responsible for the interaction between different particles?
    • (In order greatest to least)
    • strong force
    • electromagnetic(EM)
    • weak force
    • gravity
  7. What is absorbed dose?
    radiation x energy absorbed by a medium
  8. What does amu stand for?
    • atomic mass unit
    • (mass of an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12.00 amu)
  9. What is an Atom?
    smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element
  10. What is direct proportionality?
    as one ration increases the other ratio increases or vise versa
  11. What is an electrical charge?
    • fundamental property(character) of subatomic particles, it determines the strength of their EM interaction.
    • note: the MASS of a particle determines the strength of their gravitational interaction.
  12. What is electron volt(eV)?
    special "derived" unit for radiation energies
  13. What is the formula for the number of electrons allowed in any shell of an atom?
    • 2n2, n = shell number(K=1,L=2,M=3 and so on)
    • note: the energy of a shell increases with the increase of the value of n(the more e the more energy)
  14. What is gravity force?
    force responsible for interaction between particles with nonzero mass and has an infinite range
  15. Gray can be expressed in units of?
  16. What is Gray(Gy)?
    • radiation ABSORBED dose
    • (it replaced the outdated unit of rad)
  17. What is GROUND STATE of an atom?
    lowest possible energy state of an atom, n= 1
  18. Hadrons are?
    protons and neutrons
  19. What is inverse proportionality?
    as one factor increases the other factor decreases and vice versa
  20. joule(J) =
    (J) is the accepted metric(SI) unit of energy
    • 1 kgm2/s2
    • (1 kilogram-meter2 per second2)
  21. keV =
    (kiloelectron volt)
    103 eV
  22. What are leptons?
  23. What is linear interpolation?
    process of calculating unkown values from known values
  24. A becquerel(Bq) =
    1 dcps(disintegration per second)
  25. MeV =
    (megaelectron volt)
    10 eV
  26. note:
    a neutron has no charge
  27. note: from gray box p.280
    as the atomic number of an atom increases the number of electrons increases(keeps atom neutrally charged)
  28. What is the number of electrons allowed in any outer shell?
  29. What is proportion?
    when two ratios are equal or an equation relating two ratios
  30. What is radiation?
    transmitted energy in the form of electromagnetic waves
  31. What is a ratio?
    comparison of two numbers, values or terms
  32. What is Roentgen(r) measurement used for?
    amount of radiation exposure in the AIR
  33. What are the 2 rules by which electrons fill an atom's shell?
    • 1. no shell can contain more than its max number of electrons
    • 2. the outermost shell can only hold 8 electrons
  34. What does SAD stand for?
    source to axis distance
  35. What does SI stand for?
    international system of units
  36. What does SSD stand for?
    source to skin distance
  37. What is a strong force?
    short ranged force responsible for interaction between neutron and proton and other particles in the hadrons family
  38. What are subatomic particles?
    neutrons, protons and electrons
  39. What are the 4 fundamental units in the metric system?
    • second(time)
    • meter(distance)
    • kilogram(mass)
    • ampere(electrical current)
  40. What is weak force?
    • short ranged force  responsible for interaction between elementary particles(neutrinos and antineutrinos)
    • responsible for radioactive decay(beta decay)
  41. Who was Becquerel?
    He discovered redioactivity with Marie Curie.
  42. Who was Madam Marie Curie?
    She is known for discovering Radium and Polonium. She coined the word "radioactivity".
  43. Who was Roentgen?
    He discovered X rays.
  44. Electron's binding energy
    the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom
  45. valence electrons
    electrons in the outermost shell of the atom
  46. excited state (of an electron)
    state in which an atom picks up outside energy, causing an electron to move into a higher-energy orbital
  47. excitation
    when energy is imparted to an electron it becomes excited, the atom will then reach an unstable state
  48. ionization
    when an electron is removed from an atom
  49. characteristic x-rays
    excess energy(photons) released from an atom when an electron from a higher energy orbit fills the empty space of an ionized electron
  50. Auger electron
    outer electron that is knocked out of an atom
  51. strong nuclear force
    force that tightly binds protons and neutrons of a nucleus
  52. atomic number
    number of protons in a nucleus
  53. atom mass number
    number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  54. nucleon
    proton and neutron together
  55. nuclear force
    • holds protons together in the nucleus by overcoming electrostatic force
    • (protons in the nucleus are all positive and would naturally repel each other
  56. nuclear binding energy
    total amount of energy that it takes to hold a nucleus together
  57. ground state
    minimum amount of energy needed to keep nucleons together
  58. radioactivity
    emission of energy from nucleus
  59. In relationship to the atom, Z =
    atomic number, # of protons
  60. In relationship to the atom, A =
    atomic mass number, nucleon(protons & neutrons together)
  61. In relationship to the atom, N =
    neutron number
  62. Isotope
    Z, atomic number(protons) stay the same
  63. Isobar
    A, mass number(protons and neutrons) stay the same
  64. Isotone
    N, neutron number, stays the same
  65. Isomer
    everything stays the same(Z,A and N)
  66. photon
    packet of energy traveling through space at the speed of light(in a vacuum)
  67. the speed of light =
    3 x 10⁸ m/sec
  68. electromagnetic wave
    waves that consist of anelectrical field and magnetic field traveling through space at right angles to each other
  69. nu (ν) =
    frequency of a EM wave
  70. lambda(λ) =
    wavelength of a EM wave
  71. velocity(c) =
    speed of a EM wave(constant) which is the speed of light in a vacuum

  72. note:
    a photon has no mas
  73. wave-particle duality
    when photons exhibit the characteristics of a particle at times and a wave at times
  74. rest mass
    mass (weight) of a particle when it is not moving