Men/Women

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Author:
rclee06
ID:
194562
Filename:
Men/Women
Updated:
2013-01-22 21:23:22
Tags:
WUSOP
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Description:
Lecture 1
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  1. ______ secrete sex hormones.
    Gonads
  2. Female reproductive organ
    Ovary
  3. Female reproductive cell
    Ovum
  4. Male reproductive organ
    Testicle
  5. Male reproductive cell
    Sperm
  6. Ovaries secrete ____ and _____.
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
  7. ____ secrete testosterone.
    Testes
  8. What are two types of sex hormones?
    • Androgens
    • Estrogens
  9. What hormone is responsible for ovarian follicle development and ovarian estrogen production?
    Follicle-stimulating hormone
  10. What hormone plays a role in spermatogenesis regulation?
    Follicle stimulating hormone
  11. Luteinizing hormone is responsible for ____ and _______ maintenance.
    • Ovulation
    • Corpus luteum
  12. The _ cell is responsible for testosterone synthesis and is related to ___ hormone.
    • Leydig
    • Luteinizing
  13. ___ is made up of corpus cavernosum aka ____.
    • Penis
    • Erectile tissue
  14. Connects the urinary bladder to the male external genitalia
    Urethra
  15. The ____ is the external sac that regulates temperature and contains the ______ and _____.
    • Scrotum
    • Testes
    • Epididymis
  16. The ______ is the site of spermatogenesis and sex hormone production.
    Testes
  17. Where do sperm mature?
    Epididymis
  18. The vas deferens connects the ______ to the _________ and helps with sperm maturation and storage.
    • epididymis
    • urethra
  19. The ____ alkalinizes the sperm to survive the acidic environment of the vagina.
    Prostate
  20. The seminal vesicle ________.
    Produce nutrients that help sperm survive after ejaculation.
  21. How long can sperm live in the female reproductive tract?
    24-38 hours
  22. The average volume of sperm is ____ mL.
    2.5-3.5
  23. Describe the pathophysiology of an erection.
    Arousal --> PNS --> NO released --> cGMP increased --> penis arteries vasodilate --> arteries fill with blood
  24. Describe the pathophysiology of ejaculation
    Sacral spinal cord emits sympathetic impulses
  25. What is emission?
    movement of semen into the urethra--sensation of fullness heightens sexual stimulation
  26. Describe the pathway of testosterone production
    • Hypothalamus --> GnRH --> pituitary --> LH --> testes --> testosterone
    • Negative feedback if testosterone is too high
  27. What is the principal secreted androgen in the male body?
    Testosterone
  28. Name 3 functions of testosterone.
    • Sex organ development
    • Sex characteristics at puberty
    • Sperm production
  29. ____ is the inferior region of the birth canal and is also the passageway for sloughed endometrium.
    Vagina
  30. The region of uterus from the isthmus to vaginal termination is known as the ____.
    cervix
  31. The region between the fallopian tubes and cervix is known as the _______.
    • Uterus
    • Also known as the womb
  32. What produces estradiol, androgen, and progesterone?
    Follicle
  33. A follicle is a ________.
    Gamete enclosed with a sac of cells
  34. Describe the pathway for estrogen production
    • Hypothalamus --> GnRH --> pituitary --> FSH --> estrogens
    • Negative feedback if estrogen levels are too high
  35. List the common sources of estrogen production in pre-menopausal women.
    • Ovaries (main)
    • Adrenal gland
    • Adipose tissue
  36. List the common sources of estrogen production in post-menopausal women.
    • Adipose tissue
    • Adrenal gland
  37. List the functions of estrogen.
    • Sex organ development
    • Sex characteristics at puberty
    • Pregnancy maintenance
    • Bone strength
    • Blood clotting
  38. Progesterone is secreted by _______
    Corpus luteum of the ovary
  39. Name two functions of progesterone.
    • Decrease GnRH pulses (transition between phases in the menstrual cycle)
    • Pregnancy maintenance
  40. List the 4 changes that females go through during puberty.
    • Adrenarche: secretion of adrenal androgens
    • Thelarche: breast development
    • Pubarche: pubic hair development
    • Menarche: first period
  41. What is the age range for a female to go through puberty? Approximately how long does puberty last?
    • 8-13 years
    • 2 years
  42. Describe the stages of puberty for men.
    • 1: Pre-adolescence
    • 2: Teste enlargement
    • 3: Penile enlargement
    • 4: Penis growth
    • 5: Adult genitalia
  43. At what age do males go through puberty?
    9-14 years
  44. Describe the stages of puberty for women.
    • 1: Pre-adolescence
    • 2: Breast buds
    • 3: Breast enlargement
    • 4: Areola projection
    • 5: Adult breasts
  45. Describe the physical/hormonal changes that occur during menopause. 
    • Decreased estrogen formation
    • Unresponsiveness to gonadotropins
    • Decreased gonadotropin function
    • Uterine and vaginal atrophy

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