Gram Negative Bacteria
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What are the different gram negative bacteria?
What kind of invader is Pasteurella?
usually a secondary invader, but can be a primary invader too
What can Pasteurella cause?
- snuffles in rabbits
- severe mastitis in cattle and sheep
- hemorrhagic septicemia
- shipping complex in cattle
- found in bite wounds in dogs and cats
How can cattle get shipping fever complex?
- adverse weather
How is shipping fever complex transmitted?
What are the clinical signs of shipping fever?
- high fever
- nasal discharge
Where is Haemophilus found?
- commensal in prepuce of dogs
- commensal on mucous membranes of respiratory tract and genital tract
What can Haemophilus cause?
meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and conjunctivitis in cattle
How is Haemophilus transmitted?
transmission is unknown but thought to be aerosol
Where is Bordetella found?
- commensal in upper respiratory tract of dogs and swine
- often a secondary invader of dogs with distemper
What is another name for Bordetella in dogs?
What are the clinical signs of kennel cough?
- honking non-productive cough
- exercise intolerance
How does Bordetella affect swine?
- atrophic rhinitis
- affect turbinates, get upward or lateral deviation of the nose
Where do we find Actinobacillus? And how does disease occur?
- in oral cavity of healthy animals and rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats
- disease occurs with oral trauma
What is Actinobacillus called in cattle?
Describe wooden tongue.
- granulomas and abscesses
- enlarged tongue
- inability to prehend food
- excess salivation
Actinobacillus is commonly seen in _____ foals.
How can foals become infected with Acinobacillus?
can become infected at birth through the umbilicus
Actinobacillus can be a purulent infection of _____ and _____.
What produces enzymes that play a role in production of disease?
Where do we commonly find Pseudomonas?
common inhabitant of the soil and nasal cavity
What does Pseudomonas infect in dogs?
- ears and urinary tract in dogs
What does Pseudomonas affect in horses?
What does Pseudomonas cause in cattle?
- traumatic pericarditis
What color does Pseudomonas produce on the agar?
blue green pigment
What kind of odor does Pseudomonas have?
Is Pseudomonas easy or difficult to treat?
What can grow in gasoline?
What species does Aeromonas affect?
What is another name for Moraxella?
infectious keratoconjunctivitis in cattle - pink eye
What are the clinical signs of infectious keratoconjunctivitis?
- serous ocular discharge
- later becomes mucopurulent
- cloudiness to cornea
- bloodshot eyes
- squinting - photophobia
What time of the year is Moraxella the most common?
What type of cattle are more susceptible to Moraxella?
white faced cattle
How do cattle get Moraxella?
- flies carry ocular discharge from one cow to another
- cows rubbing on each other or other objects can transmit the disease
Where in the body is Enterobacteriaceae found?
What happens to Enterobacteriaceae after death?
- after death, the bacteria rapidly invade the surrounding tissues
- if necropsy is done several hours after death, Enterobacteriaceae outside of the intestines should be interpreted with caution
What are the different kinds of Enterobacteriaceae?
- Escherichia coli
What does Escherichia coli cause?
- calf and piglet scours
- urinary tract infections in dogs
- enterotoxemia in foals
How many types of Salmonella are there?
more than 100
What does Salmonella do to younger animals?
- septic form
- mortality nearly 100%
- may not see diarrhea
What does Salmonella cause in older animals?
What are the clinical signs of Salmonella enteritis?
- severe watery diarrhea
- high fever
- feces has putrid odor
- may contain mucus
- chronic form - diarrhea, emaciation, intermittent fever
What does Klebsiella cause in cattle, pigs, and horses?
- septicemia in foals
What does Klebsiella cause in dogs?
Describe Proteus while culturing it.
- swarming growth on culture media
- distinct putrid odor on media
What can Proteus cause in dogs?
- cystitis and urinary infections
- ear infections
What can Proteus cause in cats?
What can Proteus cause in younger animals?
What does Serratia look like at room temperature?
produces a red pigment
What does Serratia cause?
nosocomial infections - urinary and respiratory tracts
What are the two types of Enterobacter?
- Enterobacter aerogenes
- Enterobacter cloaceae
Where do we find Enterobacter?
- human skin
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