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- A loosely organized group of cells
- forms the central core of the brainstem, extending through the medulla, pons, and midbrain.
- Appears net-like in some staining methods
Homeostasis and the Reticular Formation
- the reticular formation inside pons and medulla controls state of arousal (awake, asleep, comatose)
- Various scales used to determine level of consciousness from fully conscious to comatose(persistent vegetative state)
- Brainstem controls autonomic functions (heartbeat, respiration) while cortex controls conscious thought
- -sensory info only consciously perceived when it is relayed to cortex.
- -conscious control of motor function only if it originates in cortex.
see objective 19. page 567
True or False
The right side of he brain controls the right side of the body.
The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body
True or False.
The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body.
What are the functions of the left hemisphere of the brain?
- Receives somatic sensory signals from and controls muscles on right side of body
- Numerical and scientific skills
- Ability to use and understand sign language
- Spoken and written language
What are the functions of the right hemisphere of the brain?
- Receives somatic sensory signals from and control signals from and controls muscles on the left side of body
- Musical and artistic awareness
- space and pattern perception
- Recognition of faces and emotional content of facial expressions
- Generating emotional content of language
- Generating mental images to compare spatial relationship
- Identifying and discriminating among odors
the two halves of the brain are connected through a major bundle of axons called the ...
Latin: "Huge body"
True or false
In almost all right-handed people, and in a slight majority of left-handed people, the production of speech (Broca's area) is localized to the left hemisphere.
- A weird phenomenon that occurs when there is a stroke in in parts of the right parietal lobe.
- patients are only aware of the right half of the world, including the right half of their own body.
- They do not recognize their left side as belonging to them.
- Also called the limbic lobe (Latin: "border, fringe"
- plays a key role in emotional behavior
- it was first named "le grand lobe limbique"
- Forms a border or fringe that encircles the brainstem and thalamus.
What are the original five structures of the Limbic system?
- mammillary bodies
- anterior nucleus of the thalamus
- cingulate gyrus
- parahippocampal gyrus
True or false
In the original circuit proposed by Papez, the five structures of the limbic lobe were connected in a circular pathway.
connects the hippocamas to the mammillary bodies
connects the mamillary bodies to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus
In more recent work, what other structures have been included in the limbic lobe?
- Olfactory bulb
- septal nuclei
- stria medullaris
- stria terminalis
processes smell (olfactory) information, which is an important part of emotion
ex: try to smell burning flesh, burning food, feces, or food without having an emotional response to the odor
- it is involved in learning and memory
- if you experience a very dangerous situation, you want to remember what led to it, so you can avoid it in the future
- This also shows us how important emotion is when we want to learn something
- In the absence of emotion, it is very difficult to activate this circuit, and the ability to learn is impaired.
Memory is made up of _____ different systems
True or False
The storage of memories is in the area of cortex that processes the sensation.
Ex. visual memories are stored in the visual cortex
Memories are moved form short-term "scratchpad" memory to a more permanent form.
Declarative memory (explicit memory)
- remembering facts, dates, and events
- theses are consolidated in the hippocampus and diencephalon
Non-declarative memory (implicit memory)
- Skills and habits
- ex: hand washing, snowboarding,
- consolidated, then stored, in the caudate and putamen (these parts of the basal nuclei are called together the striatum); motor cortex; and cerebellum
- imaging yourself doing something before you actually do it (mental practice)
- ex: shooting baskets in your head, practicing the piano in your head
- This takes place in the cortex especially in the premotor cortex (Brodmann 6)
What are some forms of Classical conditioning?
Emotional response and "muscle memory"
Where is emotional response stored?
In the amygdala
ex: The fear you feel as you drive down a street where you had a traffic accident the year before.
- Stored in the cerebellum
- The learning of an activity through practice until it is done without thought.
- ex: the pattern of your PIN on an ATMs keypad
True or False
Reflexes are faster and more effective with learning.