definitions, themes of debate, positions, and research design in cross-cultural psychology
the study of similarities and differences in individual psychological functioning in various cultural and ethnocultural groups; of ongoing changes in variables reflecting such functioning; and of the relationship of psychological variables with sociocultural, ecological, and biological variables.
cause and effect relationships between culture and behaviour
kinds of cultural experiences may be factors in promoting human behavioural diversity
are culture and behaviour distinct entities?
observable actions and responses
thoughts, beliefs, meanings
universalism (psychic unity)
To what extent are psychological functions and processes common to humankind?
overt and covert behaviour should be seen as culturally shaped reflections of common psychological functions and processes.
focus on how different ecological and sociocultural environments impact shared human psychological functions/processes and lead to differences in behaviour repertoires
culture and behavior are essentially inseparable and different psyches will emerge in different cultural contexts
shift in interest to internal culture and covert behaviour
psychological variables are interpreted as differences in functioning rooted in psychological histories
cultural conditions are seen as existing independently of particular individuals
x-cultural differences in behaviour do not imply differences in underlying processes
goal of finding what might be psychologically common to a range of cultures/human species
any theoretically meaningful psychological concept should make sense everywhere, despite large variations in behaviour manifestations
cultural context = antecedent conditions, and psychological variables = outcomes
selection of populations with different antecedent conditions to measure differences in behavioural outcomes
leans toward universalism, culture is both internal and external
conceptual scheme where features of a culture are understood via the manner of their relationships
human beings are active participants in their relationships with their physical and social contexts
population-level variables influence individual outcomes and vice versa; mediated via various forms of transmission (pg. 19-21)
the setting in which human organisms interact with he physical environment
eg. economic activities, socioeconomic status
host of variables covering norms, beliefs, attitudes, and ideas
individuals acquire part of the total gene pool of the population to which they belong trough their biological parents
processes of socialization and enculturation through which the individual acquires part of the total pool of cultural information available in the society or community
contacts between populations due to historical and contemporary experiences which involves mutaual influence between the groups in contact
the extent to which culture is conceptualized as part of the person
eg. ideas, philosophies, beliefs, etc
the extent to which a set of conditions outside of the person is considered culture
eg. mode of subsistence, political organization, ecological/social context, poverty, climate, acculturation
To what extent are psychological functions and processes unique to specific cultural groups?
focus on how the functions and processes themselves are the outcome of interactions between oragnism and context; they are inherently cultural
most of people's thinking involves mainly language
therefore, thoughts are different when languages are different