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Structure of mature sperm
- three parts:
- head: haploid nucleus
- neck: connecting piece so tail doesn't snap head off during movement
- tail: flagella= movement
What happens to the organelles in the sperm?
What is special about the upper region of the tail?
- most organells lost in mature structure
- in upper
- in upper region of the tail, there are a lot of mitochondria for ATP production
Explain the acrosome.
- located on top of the head
- It is a sac derived from the Golgi with lytic enzymes necssary to break down the barriers surrounding an egg.
Structure of the:
Sits in the pelvic cavity
Function of the ovaries
produce gametes and the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone
True or False:
The fallopian tube joins the ovary.
- The fallopian tube is in close proximity, but does not join the ovary
Function of the fallopian tube.
transport tubes with a major role in fertilization. Fertilization occurs here
Structure and Function of the uterus.
- house embryo
- internal short muscular tube that accepts the erect penis and functions as a birth canal
- A girl in pre-puberty has an ovary that has primary follicles (immature follicles) that are made up of a single layer of follicle cells and a large central cell, which is the primary oocyte.
- The follicle's role is to produce female hormones
Explain the life cycle of the follicle.
when the girl is an embryo, the follicle forms, but begins to die at birth.
True or False:
Follicle= follicle cell
- Follicle is the structure (a stage of a gamete)
Structure of the ovaries. (detailed)
- Not orderly like the testes: follicles are arranged haphazardly in the connective tissue
- There is no protective covering: outside are cells called germinal epithelium
- Contains hundreds or thousands of immature follicles: once a month is post puberty, one matures and produces a fertilizable gamete
- Not confluent with the rest of the system: not joined
Parts of the Fallopian Tube
- three pairs:
- closest to ovary: infundibulum
- next: ampulla
- Last: isthmus
Explain the infundibulum:
- Structure: funnel-shaped with finger-like projections called fimbriae
- Function: role of infundibulum and fimbriae is to lure (Create a fluid pressure) oocyte into fallopian tube where the mucus lining causes it to stick
- Essentially, it funcitons to catch the ovulated oocyte.
Explain the function of the ampulla:
- important because its the NORMAL SITE of fertilization
- - if it takes too long to get to uterus, it gets embedded in the wall of the tube, becoming a tubal pregnancy.
- It usually takes 5-6 days for fertilized egg to get to uterus. If too fast, its a spontaneous abortion.
Explain the structure and function of the isthmus.
connects to the uterus, the next structure
If the egg isn't caught up in the __, it will __.
Survival of the egg relies on what?
- formation of the placenta
A pregnancy that is out of order is the __.
Explain some examples.
- ectopic pregnancy
- in abdomen= abdominal where egg is bound in diaphragm
- most common, the tubal pregnancy: if oocyte is fertilized too soon and embeds self in fallopian tube, it won't work--> woman starts bleeding--> they remove the tube
- If late, the oocyte can embed self in cervix--> placenta previa
Structure of the Uterus
- single-pear shaped organ with three parts:
Structure of fundus and cervix.
- balloons above fallopian tubes
- narrow end
Explain the structure of the wall of hte uterus.
- innermost: endometrium
- middle: myometrium
- outer: perimetrium
Explain the endometrium.
- glandular epithelium
- -in this layer, the embryo embeds and forms placenta
- -grows within the endometrium
- - this layer builds up in hopes of fertilization and sheds if no fertilization every month
Explain the myometrium.
- middle/ thickest/ smooth muscle
- contracts to get baby out
Explain the perimetrium.
- connective tissue
- anchoring layer: BV and nerves to uterus; ligaments that help attach uterus and ovary
Structure of vagina.
- short muscular tube that balloons above the cervix a bit
- highly muscular
function of vagina
- accept erect penis
- birth canal for baby to get out
- Two openings: vaginal (oriface for sex and birth) and urethra for urination